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Gerson R. de L. Fortes and Silvio L. Teixeira

The aim of this work was to study different apple of somatic material as callus and adventitious shoots are concerned, for further utilization in the research of somaclonal variation. The somatic materials were: leaf discs, cotyledons and hypocotyls of Gala apple seedlings, cultivated in a MS medium added by B5 vitamins in addition to (in mg/l): BAP (1,0), NAA (0,5) mio-inositol (100,0) sucrose (30,0 g/l) and solidified in agar (6,0 g/l). The several times of explant exposition to the dark affected the final callus weight. Callus weight derived from leaf discs were higher than those for cotyledons and hypocotyls. Explants exposed directly under light or up to two weeks in the dark showed less percentage of regenerative callus as compared to those of three weeks in the dark. The leaf explants presented the highest percentage of regenerative callus. The least response was obtained for those derived from hypocotyls. The highest number of adventitious shoots was obtained keeping the explants three weeks in the dark as compared to directed light exposition.

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F.F. Ahmed, A.M. Akl, A.A. Gobara and A.E.M. Monsour

The beneficial effect on yield and quality of `Anna' apple fruits for the application of ascobine at 0.1% and citrine at 0.6% was studied during 1995 and 1996. Results showed that two citrine sprays at start of growth and 30 days later of ascobine at 0.1% or citrine at 0.6% were of material promotion effect on yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, and total sugars, while reducing the total acidity. Both fertilizers were equally very effective in all the studied characters. The most striking and promising treatment was the application of ascobine at 0.1% or citrine at 0.6% twice during the growing season; i.e., growth start at 30 days later.

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Raquel Gomez and Lee Kalcsits

‘Honeycrisp’ is among the most widely grown apple cultivars in the United States and ‘WA 38’ is a new apple cultivar released in Washington State. ‘Honeycrisp’ is highly susceptible to bitter pit and other physiological disorders; however, ‘WA 38’ is not susceptible to bitter pit but little is known about its susceptibility to other disorders. Bitter pit is a calcium-related disorder that has been associated with localized calcium deficiencies in fruit in addition to the proportions of calcium relative to the presence of other nutrients like potassium and magnesium. The objective of this study was to compare physiological differences and fruit quality between ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘WA 38’ to determine how these differences might correspond to differences in mineral nutrient composition and bitter pit susceptibility. Here, ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘WA 38’ elemental composition in leaves, fruit, and xylem sap was measured every 20 days starting 30 days after full bloom and compared with leaf gas exchange and stem water potential. ‘Honeycrisp’ had greater foliar transpiration rates that corresponded with greater calcium in the leaves and lower leaf K+Mg/Ca ratio, when compared with ‘WA 38’. In contrast, fruit calcium concentrations were higher for ‘WA 38’ with lower K+Mg/Ca ratios. Xylem conductance was higher during late summer in ‘WA 38’ compared with ‘Honeycrisp’. ‘WA 38’ fruit was denser than ‘Honeycrisp’ and more research is needed to determine whether differences in fruit structure may affect susceptibility to bitter pit in apple.

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Chris Gottschalk and Steve van Nocker

macroscopically visible within the shoot without dissection ( Malus × domestica ). ( C–D ) By Stage 2, individual flowers were easily apparent as a tight cluster [e.g., in ( C ) M . × domestica ] or loose cluster [e.g., ( D ) M. fusca ]. At this stage, in ( C

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Briana L. Gross, Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Philip L. Forsline, Gennaro Fazio and C. Thomas Chao

# (for grafted trees)] or Geneva Malus number (for seedlings in most cases) identification numbers ( Table 1 ). For the present analyses, we focus on 1131 diploid M. × domestica cultivars in the PGRU orchards. To identify duplicates, each M

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Hatsuhiko Okada, Yoshitaka Ohashi, Mamoru Sato, Hideyuki Matsuno, Toshiya Yamamoto, Hoytaek Kim, Tatsuro Tukuni and Sadao Komori

Guilford, P. Prakash, S. Zhu, J.M. Rikkerink, E. Gardiner, S. Bassett, H. Forster, R. 1997 Microsatellites in Malus × domestica (apple): Abundance, polymorphism and cultivar identification Theor

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Wanmei Jin, Qiang Zhang, Sunzhong Liu, Qinping Wei, Wanmei Jin, Zongming Cheng, Xiaohui Xue and Tingzhen Yang

Apple ( Malus × domestica ) is one of the major economically important fruit tree species in the world. The past 20 years saw rapid development of intensive and efficient cultivation technology in dwarf rootstocks in Europe, North America

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Carol A. Miles, Travis R. Alexander, Gregory Peck, Suzette P. Galinato, Christopher Gottschalk and Steve van Nocker

Current demands for diverse, natural, and locally produced beverages have resulted in the reappearance of hard apple ( Malus × domestica ) ciders in food markets, restaurants, and bars. In 2018, revenues from hard cider, perry [fermented pear

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou and Yuncong Yao

plant architecture and dwarfism characteristics in ‘SH6’ dwarf apple rootstocks and promote its application value in orchards. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth conditions. ‘SH6’, the hybrid offspring of Malus domestica cv. Ralls Janet

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Gayle M. Volk and Adam D. Henk

et al., 2015 ). Malus × domestica cultivars (1473 accessions), as well as thousands of individuals representing hybrids and wild species, are maintained in the field collection of the Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) in Geneva, NY ( Volk et al