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George E. Boyhan, Julia W. Gaskin, Elizabeth L. Little, Esendugue G. Fonsah, and Suzanne P. Stone

cover crop used. Cover crops compared in this study were brown mustard ( Brassica juncea ), ‘Daikon’ oilseed radish ( Raphanus sativus ), oriental mustard ( B. juncea ), ‘Tilney’ yellow mustard ( Sinapis alba ), and sudex ( Wang et al., 2008 ). Studies

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Qinglu Ying, Yun Kong, and Youbin Zheng

activity and increased phototropin activity) ( Kong and Zheng, 2020 ; Kong et al., 2018b , 2019b ). Also, for arugula ( Eruca sativa ) and mustard ( Brassica juncea ) microgreens exposed to 24-h lighting, the promoted elongation by monochromatic B

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Dean A. Kopsell, Scott McElroy, Carl Sams, and David Kopsell

Vegetable crops can be significant sources of nutritionally important dietary carotenoids and Brassica vegetables are sources that also exhibit antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity. The family Brassicaceae contains a diverse group of plant species commercially important in many parts of the world. The six economically important Brassica species are closely related genetically. Three diploid species (B. nigra, B. rapa, and B. oleracea) are the natural progenitors of the allotetraploid species (B. juncea, B. napus, and B. carinata). The objective of this study was to characterize the accumulation of important dietary carotenoid pigments among the genetically related Brassica species. The HPLC quantification revealed significant differences in carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment accumulation among the Brassica species. Brassica nigra accumulated the highest concentrations of lutein, 5,6-epoxy lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin. The highest concentrations of beta-carotene and total chlorophyll were found in B. juncea. Brassica rapa accumulated the highest concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin. For each of the pigments analyzed, the diploid Brassica species accumulated higher concentrations, on average, than the amphidiploid species. Brassicas convey unique health attributes when consumed in the diet. Identification of genetic relationships among the Brassica species would be beneficial information for improvement programs designed to increase carotenoid values.

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T. E. Morelock, M. R. Hall, and W. A. Sustrunk

Abstract

‘Slobolt’ (Brassica juncea (L.) Czemiak) was developed to provide a longstanding, smooth leaf mustard with improved color of the processed product. These traits will benefit processors and home gardeners due to improved color of the cooked greens and production stability due to slower bolting.

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Thomas L. Thompson and Thomas A. Doerge

Three field experiments using subsurface trickle irrigation with various rates of target soil water tension (SWT) and N rates were conducted in southern Arizona during 1990–93. The experiments were conducted with collard (Brassica oleracea L. Acephela Group cv. Vates), mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czerniak cv. Southern Giant], and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Indian Summer). The interactive effects of water and N treatments on crop yield, N uptake, and unutilized fertilizer N were studied. In general, excessive irrigation (SWT <5.6 kPa) resulted in lower yield and N uptake and higher unutilized fertilizer N. Optimum SWTs were 9 kPa for collard, 8 kPa for spinach, and 6 to 10 kPa for mustard.

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Doyle A. Smittle, W. Lamar Dickens, James R. Stansell, and Eric Simonne

Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were grown in drainage lysimeters under controlled soil water regimes during 2 years. Irrigation regimes consisted of water applications when the soil water tension at a 10-cm depth exceeded 25,50, or 75 kPa throughout growth of the two crops on two soil types during spring and fall production seasons. Leaf yield and water use were highest when irrigation was applied at 25 kPa soil water tension. Regression equations are presented to describe the relationships of daily pan evaporation and water use to plant age, and to compute daily evapotranspiration: pan evaporation ratios (crop factors) during spring and fall production seasons.

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Curtis B. Hill, Paul H. Williams, Diana G. Carlson, and H. L. Tookey

Abstract

The glucosinolates (GSs) were estimated in the normally eaten portions of 72 cultivars of Oriental brassica vegetables including mustard greens (Brassica juncea L.), Chinese kale (B. oleracea L. Alboglabra Group Bail.), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa L. Pekinensis Group Bail.), pak choy (B. rapa Chinensis Group Bail.), tendergreen (B. rapa Perviridis Group Bail.), turnip (B. rapa L. Rapifera Group Bail., B. narinosa Bail., and B. nipposinica Bail.). Variation in GS profiles was complex. There was variation in percentages of major GSs and total GS among B. juncea, B. oleracea, and the combination B. rapa plus narinosa and nipposinica and among four subspecific groups of rapa plus the two species closely related to rapa: narinosa and nipposinica. B. juncea had distinctively high proportions of allyl-GS, ranging from 81% to 94%, whereas B. oleracea had distinctively high proportions of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-GS, ranging from 9% to 68%. Differences in GS profiles among the rapa groups, narinosa and nipposinica, were less distinctive. Cultivars of pak choy from China differed in percentages of three minor GSs from cultivars from Japan and elsewhere. There was also variation among cultivars of Chinese kale and between turnip foliage and roots.

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Husrev Mennan and Mathieu Ngouajio

), hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ), red clover ( Trifolium pratense ), and annual medics ( Medicago sp.) have been used widely as winter cover crops to suppress broadleaf and grass weeds in diverse cropping systems. Recently, brassica cover crops have

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Ekaterina A. Jeliazkova, Valtcho D. Jeliazkov, Lyle E. Craker, and Baoshan Xing

Phytoremediation has been suggested as a solution to heavy metal—polluted soils, but the choices of suitable plant species for phytoremediation have been limited. Medicinal and aromatic plants appear to be excellent selections for these plantings, since these plants are grown for economically valuable secondary products (essential oils), not for food or feed. Preliminary research indicates that heavy metals are not accumulated in essential oils, permitting the oil to be used commercially. Productivity of some, but not all aromatic plants was reduced, however, by the heavy metals. The objective of our experiment was to distinguish the mechanism of heavy metal tolerance of plants using germinating seeds of medicinal and aromatic plant species. Seeds from medicinal and aromatic plants were germinated in solutions with selected levels of heavy metals (cadmium at 6 and 10 (μg·L-1; copper at 60 and 150 μg·L-1; lead at 100 and 500 μg·L-1; zinc at 400 and 800 μg·L-1) and in distilled water. Tests on Anethum graveolens L., Carum carvi L., Cuminum cyminum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pimpinella anisum L., Ocimum basilicum L., and the hyperaccumulator species Brassica juncea L. and Alyssum bertolonii established that different plant species reacted in different ways to the heavy metals. For example, cadmium did not decrease seed germination of Alyssum, O. basilicum, and B. juncea compared with germination in water but did decrease germination of C. cyminum. Lead did not affect germination of A. bertolonii and B. juncea as compared with water but did negatively affect germination of P. anisum, F. vulgare, and C. cyminum. Except for B. juncea, F. vulgare, and C. cyminum, copper had a negative effect on germination. Zinc decreased germination in all tested species except B. juncea.

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Guangyao Wang, Mathieu Ngouajio, and Darryl D. Warncke

-season cover crops like brassicas could be integrated in the crop rotation systems and planted in the fall after harvest of a short-cycle crop. Their residues break down easily and do not interfere with field operations in the spring ( Charles et al., 2006