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based on their spectral properties ( Fig. 1 ). Light quantities reflected by mulches were measured using an Apogee Model Spec-ultraviolet/photosynthetically active radiation spectroradiometer with a reflectance probe attachment (Apogee Instruments, Inc

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458 Glenn, D.M. Miller, S.S. 2005 Effects of Apogee on growth and whole-canopy photosynthesis in spur ‘Delicious’ apple trees HortScience 40 397 400 Goulart, B.L. 1989 Growth and flowering of greenhouse-grown red raspberry treated with plant growth

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. Spectroradiometer measurements were taken by the manufacturer at 10 cm from the array with results of 15.2, 253.3, 6.5, 10.6, and 6.9 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 (PS-200; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) for 730, 640, 525, 440, and 400 nm, respectively. Photosynthetically active

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, and internode length in ‘Wichita’ pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) ( Graham and Storey, 2000 ) and ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin ( C. reticulata ) ( Wheaton, 1989 ) trees. ProCa (Regalis® and Apogee®; BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany) is used on apple ( Malus

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inoculation, plants were moved, one at a time, to a measurement station located no more than 2 m from the growth area in the same greenhouse. The station ( Fig. 1 ) was equipped with a quantum sensor (model QSO; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) to measure

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with no baskets overhead. A quantum sensor (QSO; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) was secured outside on the peak of the greenhouse. The greenhouses contained no benches or plants. Two 3.3-ft line-quantum sensors (20 photodiodes per line, Apogee

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difference in sunlight distribution between the chambers caused by shade from the greenhouse construction. A sunlight calibrated Apogee line quantum sensor (LQS50-6; Apogee Instruments, Inc., Logan, UT) and a LI-COR quantum sensor (LI-190; LI-COR, Lincoln, NE

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limited by using shading cloths on the sides of the experimental bays ( Fig. 1 ). Sensors were calibrated for solar irradiance before being installed in the experimental plots (MQ-200; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT; S-LIB-M003 and S-LIA-M003; Hobo, Bourne

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2004 ). The multiplexer was connected to a datalogger (CR1000, Campbell Scientific), which measured the thermocouples and logged the data. Ambient total solar radiation was measured with a pyranometer (SP-110-SS; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT, USA) and

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(MQ-200; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) throughout the greenhouse. The WLE compartment represented a cool, low-light environment. Temperature set points were 13 °C day/10 °C night, and a spun-woven energy curtain was continuously closed, which reduced

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