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Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been cultivated in much of the world for millennia. Little scientific research, however, has focused on improving cultural conditions for production in the temperate regions of the northeastern United States, where garlic is gaining importance as a horticultural crop. To study the effectiveness of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) mulch on garlic, experiments were conducted at the Cornell Univ. research facilities in East Ithaca, N.Y., during the 1993–94 (year 1) and 1994–95 (year 2) growing seasons and at the Homer C. Thompson Vegetable Research Farm, Freeville, N.Y., during the 1994–95 growing season. Two clones, one bolting and one nonbolting, were studied in year 1, and four varieties, three bolting and one non bolting, in year 2. All were fall-planted (mid-October), and mulch treatments were covered with wheat straw early in the following December. Control plots were not covered. The mulch either remained on the crop throughout the growing season or was removed early in the spring to expedite soil warming. This is the common practice among growers who use mulch only for winter protection. The presence of mulch during the winter increased the survival rate. Soil temperatures under the wheat straw were significantly lower during the summer than soil temperatures in unmulched plots, which could have contributed to the increase found in the yield and average bulb size of several of the cultivars. Maintaining the mulch through the entire growing season reduced weed pressure >30%. We found no significant increase in the amount of basal fungal infection. The results indicate that using straw mulch can improve garlic produced in the northeastern United States.

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or aquatic habitats. The symbols also indicate whether plants require winter protection, are used in window boxes, are medicinal or toxic, are used as cut flowers or fruit decoration, or are otherwise useful. There is even a symbol for fragrance. Even

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into areas with more severe winter conditions, cultivars with increased winterhardiness and systems to protect blackberry plants from winter injury are needed. Improved trellis design and cane-training techniques along with enhanced winter protection

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, and the necessity for increased precision in irrigation and fertilization practices all increase production costs over field-grown material. Other disadvantages of container growing include the need for winter protection, root mortality from lethal

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plants were maintained in an isolated nursery area until they were covered with a polyethylene foam blanket (Hummert International, St. Louis, MO) and plastic sheeting for winter protection. On 20 Apr. 2014, sedge plants were uncovered. One-year-old ‘Bob

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black plastic provided greater winter protection than a bare-soil production system with straw mulch applied in the spring, and directly led to greater marketable weights and bulb diameters. Two varieties, ‘Idaho Silverskin’ and ‘Persian Star’, were the

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climatic zones 3A to 9B during 1999 to 2005 ( McKenney et al., 2001 ; Ouellet and Sherk, 1967 ). ‘Emily Carr’ can survive in Canadian zone 3A with a small cover of snow or in zone 3B without winter protection but is well adapted to zones 5B through 8B

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, ‘Félix Leclerc’ cultivar can survive in Canadian zone 3A with a small cover of snow or in zone 3B without winter protection. The use of this cultivar may to be marginal in zones 3A to 8B due to tip damage. The cultivar reached its full potential for

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the American origin grape cultivars, and winter protection is required in regions having a cold climate. ‘Sujeong’ vines have relatively high disease resistance to powdery mildew ( Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.) and gray mold ( Botrytis cinerea Per

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previously described. Potted seedlings were grown outdoors under natural conditions with supplemental irrigation for anatomical and budding experiments. On 25 Nov. 2007, potted seedlings were covered with a polyethylene foam blanket for winter protection

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