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Ambani R. Mudau, Mpumelelo M. Nkomo, Puffy Soundy, Hintsa T. Araya, Wonder Ngezimana and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

calibrations were run in the same analytical sequence as the samples. Determination of total phenols. Duplicates of 2 g of spinach leaves were extracted using 40 mL of methanol. Twenty milliliters of methanol were added to 2 g of sample in centrifuge tubes and

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Azadeh Behrooz, Kourosh Vahdati, Farhad Rejali, Mahmoud Lotfi, Saadat Sarikhani and Charles Leslie

, starch, and total phenolic content, and peroxidase enzyme activity were determined. The relative amount of chlorophyll was measured using an SPAD 502 (Konica Minolta, Inc., Japan). Total soluble sugar and starch contents of leaves were extracted with 80

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Shiva Ram Bhandari, Bo-Deul Jung, Hum-Young Baek and Young-Sang Lee

sugars, total phenols, total flavonoids, vitamin E, squalene, campesterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and fatty acid composition, in pepper fruits and their relationships with antioxidant activity in five pepper cultivars most popularly cultivated in

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Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou

measured for total anthocyanin content. Results were expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents using a molar extinction coefficient of 29,600 ( Connor et al., 2002 ). For total phenolic content, 0.1 mL extract was added to a mixture of 0.15 mL H 2 O and

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Marcia Vizzotto, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, David H. Byrne, David W. Ramming and W.R. Okie

., 1996 ). There is a good correlation between total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity among red-flesh peaches and plums ( Cevallos-Casals et al., 2005 ). Furthermore, the contribution of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins to the antioxidant

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Ki-Ho Son and Myung-Min Oh

−1 PPF saturating light pulse (20 kHz). The maximum PS II quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was calculated using the equation Fv/Fm = (Fm – Fo)/Fm. Total phenolic concentration. To analyze the total phenolic concentration of leaves, the third leaf from the top

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Peter Boches, Brooke Peterschmidt and James R. Myers

phenolic levels are relatively low, ranking 15th in total phenolics of 23 vegetables ( Vinson et al., 1998 ). The highest concentrations of these compounds are found in the skin of the fruit with lesser amounts found in the flesh ( Kushad et al., 2003

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Junxin Huang, Robert Heyduck, Richard D. Richins, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Mary A. O’Connell and Shengrui Yao

., 2000 ). Jujube is also high in antioxidants, with its total phenolic content higher than that of cherries, guava, and red grapes ( Carlsen et al., 2010 ; Gao et al., 2013 ). Jujube phenolic extracts can prevent hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in

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Joshua K. Craver, Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez and Dean A. Kopsell

concentrations of: 1) total anthocyanins; 2) total and individual carotenoids; 3) total and individual chlorophylls; and 4) total phenolics within brassica microgreens. Materials and Methods Plant material and culture. Microgreens were produced using a hydroponic

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Federica Galli, Douglas D. Archbold and Kirk W. Pomper

.5 m m H 2 O 2 , and extract in a final volume of 1 mL. One unit of APX was defined as the amount of enzyme that oxidized 1 μmol·min −1 AA per milligram of protein under the assay conditions. Protein was determined as above. Total phenolic