Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 608 items for :

Clear All

near Orondo, WA; and ‘Fuji’ from a commercial orchard near Yakima, WA. Fruit were harvested when commercial maturity was attained (as determined by starch tests done by representatives from packinghouses). Apples were sorted as described earlier

Free access

arrived at VORL, they were cleaned, sorted, and graded manually to choose visually marketable onions of good size for the study. Onions with visual damage, disease, or were misshapen were discarded. Bulbs were segregated into 20-bulb lots and placed into

Free access

harvested on 6 Sept. 2011 were transported to the laboratory in Wenatchee, WA, and blemish-free fruit (no cracks or mechanical damage) sorted based on fresh weight: 120 to 175 or 250 to 350 g/fruit, 18 fruit for each weight group. The weight ranges were

Free access

Mechanized harvest for processing markets has become commercially accepted for blackberries (Rubus sp.), highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum), lowbush (V. angustifolium) and rabbiteye (V. ashei), blueberries, cranberries (V. macrocarpon), grapes (Vitus labruscana, V. vinifera, V. rotundifolia, V. sp.), raspberries (Rubus ideaus) and to a lesser extent for strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Fruit bruising during harvest and sorting often contributes to reduced “eye appeal” and keeping quality for fresh sales. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberries are successfully machine harvested for fresh markets, however, high temperature and rain will often make product quality unacceptable. Highbush blueberries grown in cool climates and rabbiteye blueberries with greater inherent resistance to bruising have most consistently given acceptable quality. Cultivar improvement and equipment that causes less bruising during harvest and sorting will be required for increased mechanization for fresh markets. Mechanical pruning of blackberries, blueberries, grapes and raspberries can reduce costs by up to 80%. The audience will be involved in discussion of advancements in mechanization techniques.

Free access

Mechanized harvest for processing markets has become commercially accepted for blackberries (Rubus sp.), highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum), lowbush (V. angustifolium) and rabbiteye (V. ashei), blueberries, cranberries (V. macrocarpon), grapes (Vitus labruscana, V. vinifera, V. rotundifolia, V. sp.), raspberries (Rubus ideaus) and to a lesser extent for strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Fruit bruising during harvest and sorting often contributes to reduced “eye appeal” and keeping quality for fresh sales. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberries are successfully machine harvested for fresh markets, however, high temperature and rain will often make product quality unacceptable. Highbush blueberries grown in cool climates and rabbiteye blueberries with greater inherent resistance to bruising have most consistently given acceptable quality. Cultivar improvement and equipment that causes less bruising during harvest and sorting will be required for increased mechanization for fresh markets. Mechanical pruning of blackberries, blueberries, grapes and raspberries can reduce costs by up to 80%. The audience will be involved in discussion of advancements in mechanization techniques.

Free access

Abstract

On 15 occasions, either Wolcott, Jersey, Morrow or Murphy cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were harvested by commercial hand-pickers and over-the-row mechanical harvesters in eastern NC during 1970 and 1971. Compared with hand-harvesting, machine-harvesting reduced yield of marketable ripe fruit 19 to 44%. Compared with commercially hand-harvested fruit, machine-harvested fruit was 10 to 30% softer in compression tests; and when held for 7 days at 21°C, the fruit developed 11 to 41% more decay. Machine-harvested fruits sorted on a commercial cleaner were softened still more and developed 5 to 10% more decay than fruit mechanically harvested but not sorted.

Fifty times as many canes were damaged by mechanical harvesting as by hand-harvesting.

Open Access

levels ( Arnold et al., 2006 ). When “other” was listed ( Table 2 ), it was frequently mentioned as either non-degree seeking students or those in some sort of postgraduate certificate program. Enrollment in horticulture or plant science degree programs

Full access
Author:

Deformed or damaged berries reduce the grade of frozen highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Before berries are frozen, immature fruit are commonly removed by density sorting in water tanks. Three studies were conducted to determine if the firmness or quality of highbush blueberries could be improved by the addition of CaCl2 to sorting tank water. `Bluecrop' and `Jersey' berries were dipped in CaCl2 solutions (0.0-4.0%) for periods of 0.5-8.0 minutes. The effect of rinsing the fruit after treatment was also studied. Berries were held at 2C for several days before evaluation. A 61.5 cm length of PVC pipe (4.0 cm. I.D.) was filled to a depth of 50 cm. with berries and dropped 4 times on to a hard surface from a height of 10 cm. The compression of the column of berries was measured and berries were removed and visually sorted according to the degree of damage. The amount of compression and number of damaged berries were inversely related to the CaCl2 concentration. Rinsing berries immediately after dips negated the effects of CaCl2. Treatment with CaCl2 may result in objectionable flavors.

Free access

Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.), native to the southeastern United States, have a distinct flavor, and grocers are interested in marketing them as table grapes. Two studies using 'Fry' muscadines were conducted to assist the muscadine industry in providing quality table grapes. Study 1 (1998 and 1999) evaluated density sorting and relationships between maturity, color, soluble solids, firmness, shelf life, and sensory evaluation of grapes. Study 2 (1998) determined the effect of storage on quality attributes of different maturities of grapes and evaluated use of polyethylene bags to extend their storage. Density separation successfully sorted grapes by maturity. Muscadine berry color may allow for visual or electronic sorting to eliminate immature fruit. Sensory panelists could distinguish differences in maturities for all sensory attributes. In 1999 maturities 3 and 4 (≈24-33 soluble solids: acid ratio) were preferred overall by panelists. As maturity increased, soluble solids and pH increased, and acidity decreased. Firmness decreased as maturity and storage at 2 °C increased. Percent decay increased with maturity and storage time. Grapes stored in polyethylene bags had reduced decay. A chart developed from the 1999 data related berry color to soluble solids: acid ratio, soluble solids, tartaric acid, and pH. Data from these studies can be used by industry to establish harvest parameters and enhance marketability of 'Fry' muscadine grapes.

Free access

To produce nonaploid Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) by artificial hybridization, we surveyed the natural occurrence of unreduced (2n) pollen among hexaploid cultivars and sorted them from normal reduced (n) pollen. The sorted 2n pollen was crossed with a hexaploid female cultivar and the resultant embryos were rescued by in vitro culture techniques to obtain plantlets. Three out of six male-flower-bearing cultivars (2n = 6x = 90) produced 2n pollen at rates of 4.8% to 15.5% varying with the cultivar, which was estimated by both pollen size and flow cytometry. After sorting giant (2n) from normal pollen grains by using nylon mesh, they were crossed with a hexaploid female cultivar. The seeds obtained from pollination with normal pollen were perfect, but those obtained from pollination with giant pollen were mostly imperfect, with embryo growth being suspended at the globular stage. Although the rate of survival was very low, some embryos at the globular stage were rescued successfully and grown in vitro. Both flow cytometric analysis and chromosome counting proved that the plantlets obtained were nonaploid.

Free access