Seedgermination and initial seedling growth are two important phases in classical plant breeding programs based on crosses between existing cultivars such as in olive species ( Olea europaea L.). Olive seedgermination is slow, long-lasting (even
carrot ( Rosenfeld, 2004 ). High temperature causes heat stress and is considered to be one of the major abiotic factors that limits carrot production because of its adverse effects on seedgermination, seedling emergence, and plant growth ( Landjeva et
, holds significant water in its layers, and seedlings can easily emerge through it upon germination ( Dana and Lerner, 2001 ). Walker et al. (1984) reported that watering was less frequent when a top coating was used in seedgermination. A vermiculite
with a high percentage of germination.
In this study, our aim was to determine the optimal conditions for seedgermination of eight Pedicularis species, based on their responses to light and several artificial treatments. Knowledge of the effects of
conditions to which plants will be exposed in later stages of their life cycles ( Mohammad and Sen, 1990 ). Soil water supply is an important environmental factor controlling seedgermination ( Kramer and Kozlowski, 1979 ).
Osmotic solutions are often used
seedcoat. The seedcoat can inhibit seedgermination by virtue of mechanical restraint, acting as a barrier to gas or water exchange, or being a source of inhibitors ( Martinez-Honduvilla and Santos-Ruiz, 1978 ; Toole et al., 1956 ). Removing the seedcoat
, 2000b ). Arancon et al. (2007) and Edwards et al. (2006) demonstrated an enhanced seedgermination and growth of tomato and cucumber plants with the application of vermicompost extracts to the growth media. Lazcano et al. (2010) reported the
of 10 to 15 cm. Alternatively, SMS may be blended with soil at a 50% soil : 50% SMS volume ratio and used as a topsoil.
Some turf managers have reported that soil amended with fresh SMS may result in a delay or inhibition of turf seedgermination
tolerance to adverse conditions have increased and the commercial development of seashore paspalum cultivars has accelerated.
Seedgermination and seedling establishment are important stages in the field performance of crop plants. In the field, seed
period during seed development for the light environment effects on seedgerminability and longevity was at the end of seed development after physiological maturity (moment of maximum seed dry weight accumulation). Because of the importance of phytochrome