Four rates of two slow-release fertilizers were tested for optimum growth of five hosta cultivars: Hosta sieboldiana `Elegans', Hosta plantaginea `Aphrodite', Hosta `Jade Scepter', Hosta `Hadspen Blue', and Hosta `Francee'. Tissue-cultured hostas from 2.5-cm plugs were planted in 6-inch (15-cm) pots filled with a commercial soilless medium, and the slow-release fertilizer was dibbled into the medium at 0, 3, 6, or 12 g/pot. The plants were maintained for 4 months. Root and shoot fresh and dry weights were recorded at the end of the experiment. In addition, foliar nutrient analysis was conducted on `Aphrodite', `Francee', and `Jade Sceptor'. Overall, hostas grew best when the medium was amended with 3 g of either Osmocote 14N-6P-11.5K or Sierrablen 17N-6P-12K slow-release fertilizer.
The poultry industry is a $1 billion industry in Texas, with most production centered in eastern Texas. The nursery industry is a $600 million industry, with 25% of the producers located in eastern Texas. With hundreds of millions of birds produced each year, and each bird producing ≈2 lb of manure, waste disposal is a growing problem. Composted poultry litter was mixed with composted pine bark to create five media with varying percentages of poultry litter as a component: 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%. A randomized complete-block design was used with poultry litter rates as main plots and plant species tested as subplots. Five species included: tomato, marigold, Cortaderia selloana, Asian jasmine, and Salvia leucantha. Prior to planting, all 1-gal containers were leached with 1000 ml of water, the leachate collected, and tested for conductivity. Plant growth measurements to be presented include plant height and dry weight. The results of media and leaf tissue nutrient analysis will be presented.
A study was conducted with Dendranthemum ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura garden chrysanthemum (`Grenadine', `Nicole', and `Tolima') to evaluate the growth and flowering of these plants grown in 2.6-L (no. 1) black plastic containers compared to plants grown in fiber containers with Cu(OH)2 impregnated into the container walls. For all three cultivars, growth indices, shoot and root dry weights, and total biomass increased for plants grown in fiber containers. Total number of flower buds per plant increased 30% to 32% for `Grenadine' and `Nicole' and 53% for `Tolima' grown in fiber containers. Plants grown in Cu(OH)2-impregnated fiber containers had less root coverage at the container:growing medium interface and no observable root circling in contrast to visible root circling on plants grown in black plastic containers. Foliar nutrient analysis on `Grenadine' showed that K decreased and Fe and Cu increased when grown in Cu(OH)2-impregnated fiber containers. No visible nutrient abnormalities were seen in this study.
growth media nutrient analysis. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.
, Warren Stiles, and Mary Jo Kelly for their review and Mike Rutzke for assistance with nutrient analysis. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby
The influence of three irrigation treatments on flowering, yield, tree growth, root distribution, and leaf analysis of mature `Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) was investigated over a six year period (1987-1992). Three irrigation treatments; 60, 80, and 100% of evapotranspiration (ETc) were applied using low-volume spray emitters. The differential irrigation treatments were maintained year round. Irrigation treatments did not affect the timing or intensity of bloom. Yield data from years 2-6 show a significant irrigation effect on cumulative weight and total number of fruit per tree. Trees receiving 100% ETc had higher yield/tree. This increased yield was due both to increased fruit numbers and individual fruit weight per tree. Tree growth was also significantly impacted by the irrigation treatments. Trees receiving 100% ETc exhibited the greatest amount of vegetative growth over the study. Yield efficiency (Kg fruit/m3 canopy) was not influenced by irrigation treatment. Irrigation treatment did not significantly influence nutrient analysis taken in the fall of each year.
All leaves from 10 replicate Cocos nucifera L. `Malayan Dwarf' (COC) and Phoenix canariensis Chabaud (CID) trees were sampled for leaf nutrient analysis. In addition, the leaflets of the youngest fully expanded leaves and the third oldest leaves were divided into five groups along the primary leaf axis and these leaflets were then cut into thirds to determine nutrient distribution patterns within leaves and leaflets. Nutrient remobilization rates were calculated for N, P, K, Mg, and Mn. Results showed that N, P, and K were highly mobile within and between leaves of both species of palms. Up to 31% of the N, 66% of the K, and 37% of the total P in the oldest leaves were ultimately remobilized to newer leaves within the palm. Magnesium remobilization rates averaged ≈71% for CID but only ≈10% for COC. The middle-aged leaves appeared to be the primary sink for Mg in COC, rather than the youngest leaves as in CID. Manganese was also quite mobile in both species, with up to 44% of the total Mn remobilized in CID. Samples consisting of recently matured leaves were determined to be the most appropriate for Ca, Fe, Mg (COC only), and Zn, but oldest leaves are more suitable for N, P, K, and Mn analysis.
Sustainable strawberry production depends on effective weed and soil management. Alternative weed management strategies are needed because few herbicides are registered for use in matted-row strawberry culture. Soil analyses are often measured in terms of chemical and physical properties alone. Measuring biological indicators of soil quality that are sensitive to changes in the environment can enhance these analyses. The experiment compared the effects of four weed management systems on weed growth, soil quality properties, and strawberry yield, growth, and development. Treatments were killed-cover crop mixture of hairy vetch (Viciavillosa) and cereal rye (Secalecereale); compost + corn gluten meal + straw mulch; conventional herbicide; and methyl bromide soil fumigation. Results indicated that there were no differences in percentage of weed cover or number of strawberry runners between the four weed management treatments in the planting year (July or Aug. 2004). The soil quality parameters, infiltration rate, soil bulk density, earthworm number, and total porosity were similar for all treatments. Plots that received the straw mulch treatment had a soil volumetric water content 20% higher and air-filled porosity that was 26% higher than the average of other treatments. Although treatment plots received similar N, leaf nutrient analysis showed that plants receiving the straw mulch + corn gluten meal treatment had a similar amount of total N when compared to the conventional and methyl bromide treatments, but was 21% higher than the killed-cover crop treatment.
Growth and mineral nutrient content of creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera (L.) var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.] in response to salinity and humic acid (HA) application were investigated, and the effects of HA application on salinity tolerance was evaluated. Bentgrass plugs were grown hydroponically in one-quarter-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution containing HA at 0 or 400 mg·L-1 with salinity levels of 0, 8.0, or 16.0 dS·m-1. Clipping dry weight (DW), tissue water content, and net photosynthesis (PN) were measured weekly for 1 month. Maximum root length, and root DW from 0 to 10 cm and >10 cm root zones were determined 31 days after treatment (DAT). The turfgrass plugs were mowed three times weekly, with clippings collected and dried for mineral nutrient analysis. Salinity was inversely related to clipping DW, tissue water content, PN, and maximum root length. Salinity had less effect on root growth than top growth. HA treatment did not affect tissue water content, PN, or root growth of salt-stressed turf. Salinity decreased uptake of N, P, K, Ca, and S; increased uptake of Mg, Mn, Mo, B, Cl, and Na; and had no influence on uptake of Fe, Cu, and Zn. Application of HA at 400 mg·L-1 during salinity stress neither increased uptake of the mineral nutrients inhibited by salinity, nor decreased uptake of nutrients which were excessive and toxic in the salinity solution. In general, application of HA did not improve salinity tolerance of creeping bentgrass.
Pure and biculture stands of rye `Wheeler' (Secale cereale L.) and field pea (Pisum sativum L.) were established and killed for mulch in Spring 1996, 1997, and 1998, in Columbus, Ohio. Treatments were five rye to pea proportions, each with a high, medium, and low seeding rate. Their effects on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth and yield were compared with those of a weedy check; a tilled, nonweeded check; and a tilled, hand-weeded check. Tomato tissue and soil were sampled for nutrient analysis. Number of leaves, branching, height, leaf area, dry weight, rate of flowering and fruit set, and fruit yield of tomato plants varied directly with the proportion of pea in the cover crop and decreased with reduced cover crop seeding rates. In 1997, yields of tomato were as high as 50 MT·ha-1 in the 1 rye: 3 pea cover crop; yield was poorest in the weedy check (0.02 MT·ha-1 in 1996). Most of the cover-cropped plots produced better yields than did the conventionally weeded check. No consistent relationship between levels of macronutrients in tomato leaf and soil samples and the cover crop treatments was established. Spring-sown rye + pea bicultures (with a higher ratio of pea) have a potential for use in tomato production.