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M.L. Gleason, M.K. Ali, P.A. Domoto, D.R. Lewis and M.D. Duffy

Integrated peat management (IPM) strategies for control of apple scab and codling moth (Cydia pomonolla) were compared with a traditional protestant spray program in an Iowa apple orchard over a 3-year period. IPM tactics for scab included a postinfection spray program and an integrated, reduced-spray program based on the use of demethylation inhibitor fungicides. Codling moth spray timing was determined by pheromone-trap captures and degree-day models. The IPM tactics resulted in an average of three fewer fungicide sprays and two fewer insecticide sprays than the protestant program. Neither yield, incidence of fruit scab, nor incidence of codling moth injury on fruit was significantly different among the two IPM treatments and the protestant treatment. A no-fungicide treatment had significantly lower yield and greater scab incidence than the other treatments. A partial budget analysis indicated that the treatment using the postinfection strategy was more costly per acre than the protectant program for orchards <20 acres, about equivalent in cost for 20 acres, but leas costly for 40 acres. A treatment incorporating the integrated, reduced-spray strategy was less costly than either postinfection or protestant strategies at orchard sizes from 5 to 40 acres. Return (total revenue - cost for control of primary scab and codling moth) per acre for the IPM strategies was somewhat lower than for the protestant program.

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Cynthia Haynes, Denise Ellsworth, Sarah Ellis Williams, Celeste Welty and Karen Jeannette

integrated pest management (IPM) in their own gardening practices and in their educational outreach work. IPM is “a long-standing, science-based, decision-making process that identifies and reduces risks from pests and pest management related strategies. It

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Mary L. Flint and Joyce F. Strand

Over the past decade, the University of California Statewide IPM Project has been extending pest management information electronically to farmers, pest management consultants, landscapers, and home gardeners. During this session we will demonstrate the Project's web site (http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu) and a CD-ROM developed to assist horticulture advisors, Master Gardeners, retail nursery personnel, and others who help gardeners manage pest problems. We will discuss considerations in using these programs for extending information, keeping the programs up-to-date, and integrating them into educational programs. The CD-ROM covers 40 vegetables and tree fruits, allowing users to specify visual symptoms, describe a situation, or look at color photos, video images, or line drawings to help identify the problem. Twenty-five to 35 different pests are included for each crop, with thousands of photo images. An ornamentals module will be added in 1998. Once the problem is identified, the system provides screens to confirm pest identity, learn about biology and damage, and choose management practices. For instance, users can view several common natural enemies for a pest, look up the relative toxicity of pesticides, or get details on how to prune to avoid stressing a tree. Choices focus on methods to reduce pesticide use. The program is being developed with cooperators at Oregon State University and Washington State University, and with guidance of end users. The UC IPM web site includes information on biology and management of hundreds of insect, pathogen, weed, and nematode pests on 35 crops and in landscapes and gardens with thousands of color photos linked through hypertext. Other databases on the site include weather databases, pesticide use data, and phenology databases for pests.

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Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, María del Pilar Vera-Hoyos, Natalia Jiménez-Beltrán and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

Citrus Ind. 87 17 19 Stenberg, J.A. 2017 A conceptual framework for integrated pest management Trends Plant Sci. 22 759 769 Teixeira, N.C. Valim, J.O.S. Campos, W.G. 2017 Silicon-mediated resistance against specialist insects in sap-sucking and leaf

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Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, María del Pilar Vera-Hoyos, Natalia Jiménez-Beltrán and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

synthetic insecticides in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for ACP ( Khan et al., 2015 ; Santos et al., 2015 ; Weathersbee and McKenzie, 2005 ). Entomopathogenic fungi have shown promising results as eco-friendly biopesticides in the control of

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William E. Klingeman, Gretchen V. Pettis and S. Kristine Braman

In past surveys, lawn care and landscape maintenance professionals have reported their willingness to adopt Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies and use nonchemical pest management alternatives ( Braman et al., 1998a ; Garber and Bondari

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Victoria A. Caceres, Cale A. Bigelow and Douglas S. Richmond

herbicides. Products, application rates, and approximate dates were determined using Scotts Annual Program Builder. 2) An integrated pest management program (IPMP) that relied on sound cultural practices in conjunction with monitoring to determine if blanket

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William Sciarappa, Sridhar Polavarapu, James Barry, Peter Oudemans, Mark Ehlenfeldt, Gary Pavlis, Dean Polk and Robert Holdcraft

registration of spinosad, now known as Entrust in the organic trade. Finally, the Rutgers Blueberry Working Group has made considerable progress in refining standard integrated pest management (IPM) practices and in helping develop new tools for organic

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Amanda Skidmore, Neil Wilson, Mark Williams and Ric Bessin

, 2012 ). Alternative control measures should be considered ( Lewis et al., 1997 ) to reduce reliance on insecticides. Growers have been encouraged to adopt various integrated pest management (IPM) techniques for cucurbit cropping systems. These

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J. Kabashima, T.D. Paine and R. Redak

Pesticide use in the landscape has been reduced through the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) (Holmes and Davidson, 1984, Olkowski et al., 1978; Smith and Raupp, 1986). IPM emphasizes prevention, identifying pests and their symptoms, regular surveying for pests, determining action thresholds and guidelines, and using sound management methods. Monitoring techniques such as pheromone traps, degree-day models, and ELISA kits, in addition to traditional methods, have enabled pest managers to determine accurately when to apply IPM techniques. Examples of serious California landscape insect pests successfully controlled through IPM include the ash whitefly [Siphoninus phillyreae (Halliday)], the Nantucket pine tip moth [Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock)], and the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata F.).