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Camilo Escalante-Magaña, Luis F. Aguilar-Caamal, Ileana Echevarría-Machado, Fátima Medina-Lara, Lucila Sánchez Cach and Manuel Martínez-Estévez

determine the relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage, and Pro and GB contents. Measurement of soil water potential. Soil samples were collected from plants exposed to different treatments (7, 10, 14, 18, and 21 d) and from their respective control

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Sheng Wang, Qi Zhang and Eric Watkins

(WAT). Electrolyte leakage was measured following the method of Su et al. (2007) . Briefly, five fully expanded leaves were collected from each container and rinsed three times with ddH 2 O. The leaves were then cut into ≈2-cm segments and placed in a

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Ali Akbar Ghasemi Soloklui, Ahmad Ershadi and Esmaeil Fallahi

. Electrolyte leakage. Twenty milliliters of deionized water was added to each tube, shaken for 1 h (250 rpm) at 23 °C, and kept at room temperature for 24 h before the first electrical conductivity (EC1) measurement was carried out. Samples were then autoclaved

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Lie-Bao Han, Gui-Long Song and Xunzhong Zhang

initiation of traffic stress, leaf samples were collected from each plot once per month for 3 months (August, September, and October) for analysis of LWC, leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC), electrolyte leakage (EL), and POD activity. At the same time

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Zhou Li, Yan Peng and Bingru Huang

unirrigated for 9 d and maintained at 21/19 °C (day/night) and then rewatered for 2 d. Fig. 3. The effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on electrolyte leakage ( A ) under well-watered condition, ( B ) under heat stress, and ( C ) under drought stress in

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Jeffery K. Iles and Nancy H. Agnew

Electrolyte leakage and regrowth were measured from September through January to determine cold hardiness of Sedum spectabile × telephium L. `Autumn Joy' and Sedum spectabile Boreau. `Brilliant' plants grown outdoors in central Iowa. Crowns were subjected to 0, –3, –6, –9, –12, –15, –18, –21, –24, or –27C. Regrowth tests were performed on whole crowns and electrolyte leakage was determined on excised tuberous root and crown tissue. Both cultivars were killed at –3C in September, but they acclimated gradually through January. Maximum hardiness was achieved in January, with killing temperatures of –27C for `Autumn Joy' and –21C for `Brilliant'. Regrowth quality ratings were significantly correlated with crown and tuberous root electrolyte leakage measurements, although the relationship was stronger for `Autumn Joy'.

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B. Shaun Bushman, Lijun Wang, Xin Dai, Alpana Joshi, Joseph G. Robins and Paul G. Johnson

greater separation between entries than TQ, g S , or ψLEAF. Fig. 4. Electrolyte leakage responses of four kentucky bluegrass entries under increasing salt treatments and for 28 d of treatment. Error bars represent least significant difference values at P

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John M. Ruter

Membrane thermostability of Heritage river birch (Betula nigra L. Heritage) was measured by electrolyte leakage from excised roots of plants grown in pot-in-pot (PIP) and conventional aboveground production systems (CPS). The predicted critical midpoint temperature (Tm) for a 30-min exposure was 54.6 ± 0.2 °C for PIP and 56.2 ± 0.6 °C for CPS plants. Plants grown PIP had a steeper slope through the predicted Tm, suggesting a decreased tolerance to high root-zone temperatures in relation to plants grown aboveground. Since the root systems of Heritage river birch grown PIP are damaged at lower temperatures than plants grown aboveground, growers should prevent exposure of root systems to high temperatures during postproduction handling of plants grown PIP.

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Milton E. Tignor, Frederick S. Davies and Wayne B. Sherman

Two USDA intergeneric, hybrid citrus scions, US 119 {[Citrus paradisi Mac. `Duncan' × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] × C. sinensis Osb. `Succory'} and selection 17-11 {C. grandis US 145 × [Citrus paradisi Mac. `Duncan' × P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.]} on `Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi × P. trifoliata) rootstocks were examined for freeze hardiness traits (4 years) and general growth characteristics (2 years). Hardiness was compared with that of `Hamlin' orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] and satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc) from Fall 1993 to Spring 1997. As expected, US 119 and 17-11 were both hardier than `Hamlin' orange as determined by leaf disc electrolyte leakage (EL). Both showed freezing tolerance similar to that of satsuma mandarin, but 17-11 was significantly hardier than satsuma or US 119 at several times during the 4-year study. Trunk diameter and tree height were similar for US 119 and selection 17-11.

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D.M. Yeh and H.F. Lin

Identification of heat-tolerant chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandifolia (Ramat.) Kitamura] genotypes for commercial production in hot areas of the world is desirable. The extent to which electrolyte leakage from chrysanthemum leaf discs, measured using a test for cell membrane thermostability (CMT), could be related to the delay in flowering induced by heat in the field-grown plants was determined. The relationship between the relative injury (RI) occurring in leaf tissue discs of chrysanthemum cultivars and treatment temperature was sigmoidal. A single temperature treatment at 50 °C resulted in injury values near the midpoint of the sigmoidal response curve and showed the greatest sensitivity in detecting genotypic differences in heat tolerance. The cultivars with a low RI value are those with the greater CMT and shorter heat-induced delay to flowering.