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Xunzhong Zhang, Mike Goatley, Jamie Conner, Megan Wilkins, Inna Teshler, Jun Liu, Michael Fefer and Wenzi Ckurshumova

associated drought stress may have an increasingly negative impact on crop yields and quality ( Zhang et al., 2012 ). Although plants have developed various defense systems to cope with abiotic stress, such as antioxidant defenses, hormonal regulation

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Kemin Su, Justin Q. Moss, Guolong Zhang, Dennis L. Martin and Yanqi Wu

al., 2007 ; Zhang et al., 2008 , 2011 ). There are also studies reporting that dehydrins are present in turfgrass when drought-stressed ( Hu et al., 2010 ; Jiang and Huang, 2002 ; Pan et al., 2013 ; Volaire, 2002 ). Very few data exist in

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Qin Shi, Yunlong Yin, Zhiquan Wang, Wencai Fan, Jinbo Guo and Jianfeng Hua

root tips ( Doussan et al., 1999 ). Ito et al. (2006) draw the conclusion that variations in the length of first-order lateral roots in responses to drought stress may help distribute their tips thoroughly in the soil. Thus, a potential xeromorphic

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Chuanhao Chen, Shaoyun Lu, Youguang Chen, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu and Zhenfei Guo

examined cultivar variations in their overall turf performance in response to irrigation schedule and drought stress ( Baldwin et al., 2006 ; Jiang and Carrow, 2007 ; Lu et al., 2006 ), investigations of physiological responses of bermudagrass to drought

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Guoting Liang, Junhui Liu, Jingmin Zhang and Jing Guo

drought stress is needed to develop tolerant and high water-use-efficiency crop systems in agriculture. Drought stress restricts plant growth by decreasing photosynthetic rate ( Kebbas et al., 2015 ; Zhang et al., 2018 ). The main factors responsible for

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Sanalkumar Krishnan and Emily B. Merewitz

drought stress. Spd application to rice ( Oryza sativa ) significantly increased K + /Na + ratio, Ca 2+ , and grain yield under salt stress ( Saleethong et al., 2013 ). In a study with bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ), Shi et al. (2013) reported that

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Kevin Laskowski, Vijaya Shukla and Emily B. Merewitz

Perennial ryegrass is a widely used C3 turfgrass and forage species in both cool- and warm-season areas ( Turgeon, 2005 ). Drought is one of the major abiotic stress factors affecting perennial ryegrass growth and functionality. Drought stress

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Qi Wang, Rui Zhao, Qihang Chen, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Liqi Chen and Xiaonan Yu

studies on the physiological and biochemical responses of herbaceous peonies to drought stress have been published. Guo (2009) studied the phenotypic traits and leaf physiological and biochemical characteristics of four herbaceous peony cultivars treated

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Juan Carlos Melgar, Jill M. Dunlop, L. Gene Albrigo and James P. Syvertsen

Albrigo, 2004 ) during the winter rest period when vegetative growth is minimum ( Moss, 1969 ; Reuther et al., 1973 ). In warm tropical citrus, flowering follows rain or irrigation after a dry period ( Cassin et al., 1969 ) and summer drought stress also

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Qiang Liu, Youping Sun, James Altland and Genhua Niu

, and the remaining two-thirds of lands are occasionally exposed to drought conditions ( Bhattacharjee and Saha, 2014 ). Plants under drought stress tend to reduce leaf size, stimulate leaf abscission, enhance root growth, and limit photosynthesis ( Taiz