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critical to evaluate how consumer preferences change for each of the components (e.g., mechanical/physical controls, cultural controls, biological controls, and chemical controls) ( Ehler 2006 ). Scouting, defined as the active process of looking for pests

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. Cultural controls such as treatment with mineral oil sprays and light-reflective surfaces, and cross-protection with weak ZYMV isolates showed limited effectiveness and required additional input costs. Therefore, genetic resistance remains the simplest

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). Chemical control of the vectors is not usually efficient to control the disease. Cultural controls such as treatment with mineral oil sprays, light-reflective surfaces, and cross-protection with weak PRSV-W isolates show limited effectiveness and require

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speakers fielded diverse questions from workshop participants; topics included chemical and cultural control measures, breeding efforts, and strategies that can be used to educate academics, green industry leaders and, ultimately, end-user clientele on

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pendimethalin) increase and as cultural control methods can be ineffective in cool-season grasses, new herbicides will be needed to ensure future control ( Busey, 2003 ; Callahan, 1986 ; Hart et al., 2004 ; Heap, 2015 ; Mudge et al., 1984 ). Several

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–3 weeks ( Terry et al., 1997 ). A blend of chemical and cultural controls is often needed to move beyond the critical weed-free period in watermelon ( Monday et al., 2015 ). Multiple PRE herbicides have been evaluated for use in watermelon and compared

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et al., 2007 ; Jett, 2007 ; Lamont et al., 2006 ). Pesticide usage may be markedly decreased, however, and biological or cultural controls can play a significant role in pest management ( Heidenreich et al., 2007 ; Lamont et al., 2006 ). Less

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weed management strategies may include cultural controls such as flooding and sanding of beds, mechanical controls such as hand weeding, and chemical controls with pre- and postemergence herbicides ( Sandler, 2011b ). Interest in reducing chemical

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favored by overcast or shady conditions, high humidity, and low rainfall ( Coyier, 1986 ). Cultural control can be achieved by growing plants in exposed locations and using overhead rather than drip irrigation ( Basden and Helfer, 1995 ; Galle, 1987

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europea L.) plants. Conclusion Drought stress caused reductions in plants’ growth, which could be used as a cultural control method for excessive plant growth ( Bailey and Whipker, 1998 ). It is important for commercial greenhouse growers to predict plant

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