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Thomas J. Molnar and John M. Capik

Cronquist, 1998 ). Although EFB typically results in inconsequential damage to C. americana ( Capik and Molnar, 2012 ; Fuller, 1908 ; Weschcke, 1954 ), in C. avellana , the disease causes perennial cankers, branch dieback, and eventually death of most

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Gehendra Bhattarai, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and David C. Smith

filbert blight, incited by the pyrenomycete Anisogramma anomala , is a serious threat to Oregon’s hazelnut industry. The fungus is native to the eastern United States where it occasionally produces small cankers on the wild american hazelnut. The fungus

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E.W. Stover and T.G. McCollum

/huanglongbing/ >. Gottwald, T.R. Graham, J.H. Schubert, T.S. 2002 Citrus canker: The pathogen and its impact Plant Health Progress (August):1–32. 21 Apr. 2011. < http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/review/citruscanker/ >. Hu, X.S. 2009 Study on the

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Andrea R. Hefty, Mark V. Coggeshall, Brian H. Aukema, Robert C. Venette and Steven J. Seybold

Thousand cankers disease affects walnuts and related species [e.g., wingnut ( Pterocarya Kunth)] and is caused by the interaction between WTB and a phytopathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida Kolařík et al. ( Kolařík et al., 2011 ). WTB is native

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Matthew L. Richardson, Catherine J. Westbrook, David G. Hall, Ed Stover, Yong Ping Duan and Richard F. Lee

pathway for infection by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri , which causes Asiatic citrus canker and reduces the quality and quantity of fruit ( Chagas et al., 2001 ; Christiano et al., 2007 ; Hall et al., 2010 ). Current management of the

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John M. Capik, Megan Muehlbauer, Ari Novy, Josh A. Honig and Thomas J. Molnar

the United States and southern Canada, east of the Rocky Mountains ( Gleason and Cronquist, 1998 ). Although EFB is typically inconsequential to C. americana ( Capik and Molnar, 2012 ; Fuller, 1908 ; Weschcke, 1954 ), it causes severe cankering

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Parama Sikdar, Mike Willett and Mark Mazzola

also capable of causing cankers and dieback of crabapple twigs and branches. Pycnidia are produced on fruit mummies and the margins of cankers, thus serving as a potential source of inoculum in the orchard. Historically, Washington State has used

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Xiuxiu Sun, Elizabeth Baldwin, Chris Ference, Jan Narciso, Anne Plotto, Mark Ritenour, Ken Harrison, Dave Gangemi and Jinhe Bai

fruit decay, citrus canker, caused by the pathogenic bacterium X. citri ssp. citri ( Xcc ), is another serious disease affecting grapefruit production in several tropical and subtropical areas of the world ( Bock et al., 2011 ). ClO 2 is a water

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Robert C. Ebel, Said Hamido and Kelly T. Morgan

from the frequent applications of Cu to suppress citrus canker caused by Xcc . Citrus canker was found in Florida in 1996 and has since become endemic throughout the state ( Bouffard, 2006 ). Canker is another very serious disease of citrus that can

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Thomas G. Beckman, Philip A. Rollins, James Pitts, Dario J. Chavez and Jose X. Chaparro

the southwest side of the trunk, and three ultimately succumbed. In our experience, PTSL in the southeast is almost always attributable to bacterial canker ( Pseudomonas syringae ). However, cold injury is also an accepted cause ( Beckman and Nyczepir