Anthocyanins are a class of flavonoids that are responsible for pigments in flowers, fruit, and potato periderm. Developing `Norland' potatoes synthesize anthocyanins in periderm tissue when the tubers are mere swollen stolon tips. As the tubers enlarge, anthocyanin accumulation seems to stop, and anthocyanins synthesized early in development seem to be diluted as the tubers enlarge. Expression of dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) limits anthocyanin synthesis in grape and maize fruit, and in petunia and snapdragon flowers. However, DFR expression in periderm tissue occurred throughout tuber development (Hung et al., 1999). To determine if expression of late anthocyanin pathway genes limit anthocyanin synthesis in developing potato tubers, we performed RNA gel blot analyses. Expression of leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase and UDP glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase was observed in swollen stolon tips but not in periderm of later tuber development stages. Surprisingly, expression was also observed in cortex tissue, although that tissue remained white throughout tuber growth.
Daniel Keifenheim and Cindy Tong*
Winthrop B. Phippen and James E. Simon
The importance of anthocyanins as a food coloring, UV protectant, inhibitor of pathogens, and medicinal compound has been well-documented, with more than 300 anthocyanin compounds being reported in plants. The Lamiaceae family, including sage, thyme, and basil, has long been recognized as a rich source of diverse and unique anthocyanins. Because purple basil varieties have become more popular in the ornamental and herb trade, we conducted a study to identify and characterize the anthocyanins present in eight varieties of purple basils (Ocimum basilicum) utilizing high-pressure liquid chromatography, spectral data and plasma-desorption mass spectronomy. Nine different anthocyanins were identified. Seven of the pigments were cyanidin-based, with cyanidin-3-(6”-p-coumarylglucoside)-5-(6”'-malonylglucoside) as the major pigment. Two minor pigments based on peonidin were also identified. Total anthocyanin content was also determined and comparisons made to other anthocyanin sources.
Chen-Yi Hung, John R. Murray, Sarah M. Ohmann and Cindy B.S. Tong
The color of red potato tubers is due to an accumulation of anthocyanins in periderm and peripheral cortex tissues. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in anthocyanin content and tuber surface color during tuber development. Using the red tuber-producing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Norland, we observed that chroma (intensity of redness) and anthocyanin content per unit of surface area of greenhouse-grown tubers decreased as tuber weight increased. There was no increase in hue (tint) during the same developmental periods. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we determined that pelargonidin and peonidin are the major anthocyanidins (aglycones of anthocyanins) in the tuber periderm. Northern blot analyses indicated that steady-state mRNA levels of dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), an anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme, continued throughout tuber development. These results suggest that anthocyanins are synthesized throughout tuber development, and that cell division and/or enlargement contribute to a decline in chroma and anthocyanin concentration.
Michael Marcotrigiano, Thomas H. Boyle, Pamela A. Morgan and Karen L. Ambach
Abbreviations: ML, `Magic Lace'; MR, `Multicolor Rainbow'; NAM, no albino midrib; NAV, nonpattern anthocyanin variegation; PAV, pattern anthocyanin variegation; PCV, pattern chlorophyll variegation; RW, `Rose Wizard'; SJ, `Saber Jade'. 1 Associate
Adriana Telias, Emily Hoover and Diego Rother
antioxidants, including anthocyanins, the primary red pigments in apple peel. Consequently, apple consumption has been associated with lowered risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases ( Boyer and Liu, 2004 ; Eberhardt et al., 2000
Yanjie Wang, Yeqing Chen, Man Yuan, Zeyun Xue, Qijiang Jin and Yingchun Xu
anthocyanins ( Qi, 1989 ). Among them, anthocyanins have been implicated as the major coloring factors in various species ( Grotewold, 2006 ; Tanaka et al., 2005 ; Zhao and Tao, 2015 ). In N. nucifera , chemical constituents of flower color have been
Shiow Y. Wang and Kim S. Lewers
compounds such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, including flavonols and anthocyanins. Important phenolic acids in strawberries are the ellagitannins and ellagic acid glucosides, which break down to pure ellagic acid, also present in the fruit ( Cerdá et
Robert J. Griesbach, Ronald M. Beck, John Hammond and John R. Stommel
when A. Howard released the cultivar ‘Howard's Star’ in the late 1800s, which is in the genetic background of nearly every modern star cultivar. Anthocyanin biosynthetic gene expression within the white and colored tissues of the Star mutation has
Chunxian Chen and William R. Okie
2 = 1.41, P = 0.24). Flower color independently segregated 88 anthocyanin-present:37 anthocyanin-absent (χ 2 = 1.41, P = 0.24) as well, also about 3:1 as expected. Lack of anthocyanin ( W/w ) is reported as recessive and results in trees with
Omaira Avila-Rostant, Adrian M. Lennon and Pathmanathan Umaharan
Flower color in plants is determined by pigments such as aurones, anthocyanins, and carotenoids ( Davis and Schwinn, 1997 ; Schijlen et al., 2004 ). Anthocyanins, the major pigment in Anthurium andraeanum (Hort), are the product of flavonoid