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Diheng Zhong, Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang and Bingru Huang

composition and content of fatty acids in the lipid bilayers of the membrane ( Gigon et al., 2004 ; Yordanov et al., 2000 ). Total lipid content in leaves generally exhibits a decline in response to drought stress in various plant species ( Gigon et al., 2004

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Shiow Y. Wang, Gene J. Galletta, Mary J. Camp and Michael J. Kasperbauer

The influence of mulch types (black polyethylene, red polyethylene, and straw-vetch in raised bed hill culture) on the chemical composition of `Northeaster' and `Primetime' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) fruit and plant parts was evaluated. Ascorbic acid (AA), malic acid, citric acid, and ellagic acid levels were higher in `Primetime' than in `Northeaster' fruits, while `Northeaster' had a higher soluble solids content (SSC). Fruit grown on straw-vetch had lower SSC than did those grown on the polyethylene mulches. The AA content in the fruit of either cultivar was not affected by the mulch treatment. Fruit grown on the straw-vetch mulch had less red surface and flesh color but higher pigment intensity than fruit grown on the polyethylene mulches. Strawberry plants grown on straw-vetch mulch had the largest leaf area and the highest chlorophyll content, while plants grown on red polyethylene mulch had the smallest leaf area and lowest chlorophyll content. There were significant mulch × cultivar interactions in fruit titratable acid (TA) and AA levels, sugars, citric and ellagic acid contents, leaf area and chlorophyll levels, and soluble carbohydrate and starch contents in leaves, petioles, crowns, crown-roots, and roots. TA was highest in `Northeaster' fruit when grown on red polyethylene, whereas TA was highest in `Primetime' fruit when grown on straw-vetch. The highest fruit citric acid levels were found in straw-vetch mulched plots of `Northeaster', and in black polyethylene mulched plots of `Primetime'. Ellagic acid accumulation was highest in `Northeaster' fruit grown on black polyethylene, and in `Primetime' fruit grown on red polyethylene or straw-vetch mulches. Fruit glucose content was highest in `Northeaster', but lowest in `Primetime', when grown on the straw-vetch mulch. There was a general tendency for soluble carbohydrate and starch levels in plant tissues to be lowest when the plants were grown in red polyethylene mulch and highest when grown in black polyethylene mulch. `Primetime' contained higher total carbohydrate levels than did `Northeaster' in all tissues tested.

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Foong M. Koh, Gloria B. McClure and Paul W. Wilson

In Summer 2003, sorbic acid was detected in a processed Louisiana product that had been shipped internationally. This discovery caused the food product to be rejected by the foreign market since sorbic acid was not declared on the label. The source was eventually traced by an analytical lab to a garlic powder component used in the product. Subsequent evaluations by the lab of fresh and dried garlic products obtained from stores indicated sorbic acid. The presence of sorbic acid suggested that it might either be a contaminant or a previously unreported naturally occurring component of garlic. To determine which was more likely, 12 garlic varieties were planted in Baton Rouge, La., during September 2003 and harvested the following spring. In addition to this harvested garlic, fresh garlic, garlic juice and garlic powder were purchased in May 2004 from three local stores. All these samples plus the original product were analyzed for sorbic acid using spectrophotometry and HPLC methods at the LSU Horticulture Dept. None of the samples contained measurable quantities of sorbic acid except for the original product. Since there appears to be no naturally occurring sorbic acid in garlic, it is likely that at least a portion of the fresh and processed garlic distributed in the U.S. during 2003 may have been adulterated with sorbic acid.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

to those in sprouts of alfalfa, brussels sprout, mungbean, and radish based on literature values for these crops. Given that there is a lack of fatty acid profile of canola sprouts in the literature, we are now reporting the contents of various fatty

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Amy K. Freidig and Irwin L. Goldman

Oxalic acid (C 2 O 4 2− ) is a component of many commonly eaten foods and is of interest as a result of its antinutritive properties. Table beet, a vegetable crop grown for both its roots and leaves, is considered by the National Kidney Foundation

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Wiley Carroll Johnson III and Jerry W. Davis

treatment cost, but was needed for optimum performance. Despite these optimized application factors, clove oil efficacy on cool-season weeds remained inconsistent. Pelargonic acid is a naturally occurring fatty acid that has herbicidal properties ( Vencill

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Zhengrong Hu, Erick Amombo, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Aoyue Bi, Huihui Zhu, Liang Zhang, Liang Chen and Jinmin Fu

unfavorable environmental conditions. Fatty acids can be divided into SFAs and UFAs. UFAs have double bonds (one or more), and more common cis -double bonds help maintain membrane fluidity, which is pivotal for plant survival during cold stress ( Cyril et al

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Yifei Wang, Stephanie K. Fong, Ajay P. Singh, Nicholi Vorsa and Jennifer Johnson-Cicalese

, 2014 ; Horvat and Senter, 1985 ), blueberries also contain different organic acids, including citric, quinic, malic, and succinic acids that contribute to their unique flavor ( Ehlenfeldt et al., 1994 ). Moreover, they are also known for the rich

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Franco Famiani and Robert P. Walker

ripening is mostly a result of the accumulation of fructose and glucose ( Kafkas et al., 2006 ; Perkins-Veazie et al., 2000 ; Wrolstad et al., 1980 ). Isocitric, lactoisocitric, and malic acids make up the bulk of organic acids in blackberry; however, the

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Ryan W. Dickson, Paul R. Fisher and William R. Argo

4 + -N) produces an acidic reaction that decreases pH as a result of H + efflux from roots during uptake and from nitrification. Nitrification can occur rapidly in container substrate above pH 5.5 and depends on factors that affect microbial