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Abstract

Most areas of northern California have ample water supplies from reservoirs, aqueducts, or deep wells, but some regions are not as fortunate. Such a region is Half Moon Bay located just 35 km south of San Francisco along the coastal plain. Several large producers of ornamental plants and cut flowers are located in the vicinity. Competition between homeowners and producers of ornamentals for available water in this area became critical by 1977 as a result of urban sprawl. In addition state and regional agencies began taking action to curtail polluted runoff waters from ornamental production sites. Locally the Coastside County Water District Water Quota Ordinance of 1977-78 instituted a water quota system with strong penalties for noncompliance. Statewide the California Fish and Game Code (1) was strictly enforced to prevent certain classified materials from passing into the waters of the state. The combination of these developments activated a search by growers for better use or reuse of irrigation water and separation of clean runoff waters from those that might be nutrient laden or otherwise polluted.

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We surveyed homeowners with residential landscapes in Las Cruces, N.M., to determine design features participants valued in their landscapes, their attitudes toward the landscape use of desert plants and opinions on factors that would encourage respondents to reduce landscape water use. We also determined whether the willingness to use desert plants in their landscapes related to the length of residency in the southwestern United States. At least 98% of respondents landscaped to enhance the appearance of their home and increase their property value. About half (50.6%) of the participants strongly agreed or agreed that the main reason to landscape was to display their landscape preferences. Many participants indicated they would use desert plants to landscape their front yard (80.3%) and back yard (56.3%), but relatively lower percentages of participants actually had desert landscapes in their front yard and back yard. Regardless of their property value, respondents were more likely to use desert plants in their backyard the shorter their stay in the desert. Data revealed that participants rank water shortages as the factor that would most likely cause them to reduce the amount of water they applied to their landscapes. We conclude that homeowners report willingness to use desert plants but desert-type landscapes are not a widespread feature of managed residential landscapes. Furthermore, water shortages and the length of time respondents spent in a desert environment would most likely influence water use in their landscapes.

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Applying only the amount of water needed by a plant, when it needs it, is a simple concept that can conserve water and reduce runoff. Simple, that is, when managing a single crop that covers an extensive area under several irrigation zones. Container production nurseries grow a large number of plants and each irrigation zone usually has a diverse grouping of taxa in various stages of development. In 1989, a nursery crop project at Oregon State University began to investigate irrigation scheduling for container-grown woody landscape plants. Crop coefficients (kc), used to adjust irrigation to specific production practices and crop characteristics, vary greatly for woody landscape plants. Woody plant kc values range from <1.0 to >5.0 during the production cycle. Plant taxa, growth stage, spacing, and pruning significantly influence kc of container-grown plants. Ilex crenata `Green Island' showed a reduction in water use (40%) immediately after pruning, but had similar kc values 60 days later. Grouping plants with similar kc values under the same irrigation zone is a very difficult task for a production nursery. It might be more practical to schedule irrigation for daily evapotranspiration, avoid placing new plantings next to mature crops, and only separate-out plants with very high or very low crop water requirements.

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Regulations restricting water use, competition for water with large urban sector, coupled with extreme high temperatures have placed a large strain on farming areas in south Texas. In addition, consumer demand for healthy vegetables has increased. The objective of this work was to determine yield and fruit quality to deficit irrigation rates and irrigation systems on poblano pepper cv. Tiburon. In 2002, an experiment was conducted at the TAES-Uvalde with a Center pivot using three irrigation rates, 100%, 80%, and 60% evapotranspiration rates (ETc). Transplants were established on beds 1.0 m apart with plants within rows 45 cm apart. In 2003, we compared production efficiency of four irrigation systems in a urban-rural environment near San Antonio. Beds were 0.9 m (single-row) or 1.8 m (double-row) between centers. Irrigation systems were: 1) furrow irrigation with one line/single beds, 2) subsurface drip (SDI)-no mulch, with one line/single bed, 3) SDI-no mulch, with two lines/double bed, and 4) SDI-white mulch with two lines/double bed. In 2002, summer ratooning of the spring-planted crop under deficit irrigation (<100% ETc) allowed a fall crop with a 2.0 fold yield increase, larger fruit size (greater than 10 cm length) and significantly lower defects caused by sunburn or blossom end rot compared to summer production. In 2003, SDI-white mulch had a 2.4-fold yield increase and 760 mm water savings compared to furrow. Fruit vitamin C content was not affected by irrigation, however, mature red fruits had a 3.6 fold increase compared to mature green fruits. Combining deficit irrigation with ratooning we were able to produce marketable poblano fruits. Additional water savings and increased yield were demonstrated by SDI technology.

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Abstract

Spraying 7-year-old citrus trees with film-forming antitranspirants before transplanting increased leaf water potential, thereby reducing “transplant shock.” Leaf water potential decreased rapidly after transplanting, by as much as 21 atm in unsprayed, and as little as 6 atm in sprayed trees. There was little benefit from transplanting in late afternoon rather than the morning.

Open Access

implemented by regional and local agencies, Cooperative Extension Services, and other organizations to encourage more efficient irrigation water use and residential water conservation; however, limited information exists about the effectiveness of such

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in the literature that provides a basis for understanding how consumers view water conservation, especially related to their landscape. However, the evidence is limited to a few drought-prone states. Little is known about consumer behavior during real

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participants and water conservation staff from the cities of Albuquerque, Santa Fe, and Las Cruces, N.M.

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, environmental laws crafted to limit ecosystem degradation are constraining the development of new sources of water for the urban environment ( Dickinson, 2008 ). In the future, conservation and rectification programs will become a significant piece of future

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conservation at the watershed scale. In this article, we outline the principles of a new paradigm for Agricultural Water Security to meet the challenges faced by agricultural producers and water managers. AGRICULTURAL WATER SECURITY In Sept. 2004, the U

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