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Thomas E. Eickhoff, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss, and Frederick P. Baxendale

in the northeastern United States and is normally associated with cool-season turfgrasses, whereas southern chinch bugs occur in southern areas of the United States and feed on warm-season turfgrasses ( Reinert et al., 1995 ). Blissus occiduus

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Luisa Martelloni, Lisa Caturegli, Christian Frasconi, Monica Gaetani, Nicola Grossi, Simone Magni, Andrea Peruzzi, Michel Pirchio, Michele Raffaelli, Marco Volterrani, and Marco Fontanelli

to recover after 3 weeks. Given that tolerance to flaming may vary from species to species, further studies on other warm-season turfgrass species are needed to investigate the use of flame weeding as an alternative to chemical herbicides. Units

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Reagan W. Hejl, Benjamin G. Wherley, James C. Thomas, and Richard H. White

., 2004 ). Bermudagrass ( Cynodon ssp . ) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass species that has shown the capacity to maintain acceptable appearance at deficit irrigation levels ( Fu et al., 2004 ; Wherley et al., 2014 ). However, little is known

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Stefano Fiorio, Stefano Macolino, and Bernd Leinauer

dormancy period of warm-season grasses, which results in a prolonged loss of turfgrass color for up to five months ( Macolino et al., 2010 ). Only a few cool-season species can be used in transition zones without large inputs of water during the summer. The

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J.T. Brosnan and J. Deputy

tolerance similar to ‘Tifway’ hybrid bermudagrass, a turfgrass commonly used on athletic fields and golf courses in warm-season climates for its superior traffic tolerance. New seashore paspalum cultivars such as ‘Sea Isle 2000’, ‘Sea Isle 1’, ‘Sea Dwarf

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James D. McCurdy, J. Scott McElroy, and Elizabeth A. Guertal

establishment within warm-season turfgrass scenarios common to the southeastern United States. Furthermore, unlike pasture systems, managed turfgrass scenarios may offer unique opportunities to manipulate turfgrass height and density as well as soil

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Michelle M. Wisdom, Michael D. Richardson, Douglas E. Karcher, Donald C. Steinkraus, and Garry V. McDonald

bulbs is limited. Identifying bulb species that could both add color to dormant warm-season turfgrasses and supply nutrition to pollinators, could fill two roles in many turfgrass ecosystems. If bulbs do not interfere with the majority of turfgrass

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David Jespersen and Brian Schwartz

hybrids. Zoysiagrasses have been gaining popularity for use in southern latitudes, and development of new cultivars has increased in recent decades ( Patton, 2009 ). Compared with other warm-season turfgrass species such as bermudagrass ( Cynodon spp.) or

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Paige E. Boyle, Michelle M. Wisdom, and Michael D. Richardson

( Cynodon spp.), a warm-season turfgrass, is one of the most commonly used lawn and utility turfs in tropical and subtropic climates. Bermudagrass grows rapidly by rhizomes and stolons and has a dense, spreading growth habit that is competitive against

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Clinton J. Steketee, Alfredo D. Martinez-Espinoza, Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Gerald M. Henry, and Paul L. Raymer

Seashore paspalum ( P. vaginatum ) is a warm-season, perennial turfgrass ( Morton, 1973 ) that is used primarily as a fine-bladed turfgrass in recreational areas. This littoral, C 4 species is typically found in tropical to warm temperate regions