Vernalization and growing degree-day (GDD) requirements of Thalictrum delavayi Franch. `Hewitt's Double' were investigated by exposing crowns to cold storage for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 weeks at 8 °C, and subsequently planting in a heated greenhouse under long-day conditions. Cumulative vernalization of crowns was complete after 6 weeks of cold storage at 8 °C. The time to flower, including time at 8 °C, was 3338 GDD (base temperature of 0 °C) without vernalization and 2802 GDD after complete vernalization. Commercial recommendations for rapid and predictable flowering of T. delavayi `Hewitt's Double' should include cold storage of crowns for a minimum of 6 weeks at 8 °C as part of the 2802 GDD during vernalization and forcing.
Ning Huang, Keith A. Funnell and Bruce R. MacKay
Sonali Padhye, Erik S. Runkle and Arthur Cameron
Coreopsis grandiflora `Sunray' has been reported to flower under long days (LD) following vernalization or short days (SD). The objectives of this study were to characterize the effective duration of vernalization and SD and to determine if photoperiod during vernalization influences flowering. Vegetative cuttings taken from stockplants developed from one seedling were rooted for 2 weeks and grown for 5 weeks. Plants were provided with a 9-hour photoperiod for 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks or were vernalized at 5 °C under a 16-hour photoperiod for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks or under a 9-hour photoperiod for 2 or 8 weeks. Following treatments, plants were grown in a greenhouse at 20 °C under a 16-hour photoperiod. Control plants were grown under constant 9- or 16-hour photoperiod. Leaf development, days to first visible bud (DVB), days to first open flower (DFLW), and height and total number of flower buds at FLW were recorded. No plants flowered under continuous SD. Under continuous LD, two plants flowered on axillary shoots but only after 95 days. All vernalized and SD-treated plants flowered on both terminal and axillary shoots. Photoperiod during vernalization did not affect subsequent flowering. DFLW decreased from 56 to 42 and from 50 to 42 after 2 to 8 weeks of vernalization and SD treatments, respectively. Following 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of vernalization, plants had 116, 116, 132, and 204 flower buds, respectively. Plant height at FLW of all SD-treated and vernalized plants was similar. Thus, 2 weeks of 9-hour SD or vernalization at 5 °C followed by LD was sufficient for flowering of our clone of C.`Sunray', although longer durations hastened flowering and increased flower bud number.
David C. Zlesak and Neil O. Anderson
A majority of commercial Lilium hybrids and species do not flower the first year from seed or scales due to an obligate vernalization requirement. The Formosa lily (L. formosanum) is a unique species within the genus Lilium because some genotypes flower from seed the first year without vernalization. The objective of this study is to determine the inheritance of stem emergence, which culminates in flowering, in seed-propagated families without vernalization. Nine L. formosanum genotypes, selected from six populations for obligate or non-obligate vernalization for flowering, were intermated to generate 23 families with 104 seedlings per family. Families were grown in a randomized complete-block design at 21 °C (day/night) and data collected were seedling mortality, stem emergence or rosetting without vernalization, and weeks to emergence. At the end of 44 weeks, rosetted genotypes were vernalized for 8 weeks (4 °C); 100% emerged. We propose this trait is controlled by two genes. For flowering without vernalization to occur, there needs to be at least one dominant allele at one of the loci. Locus Ver 2 has less penetrance than Ver 1. Families segregating for dominant alleles at both Ver 1 and Ver 2 emerged sooner (34.2 weeks) than those segregating for a dominant allele at only Ver 1 (36.1 weeks) or Ver 2 (37.6 weeks). Identification of these genes can aid in the development of uniform, fast-flowering L. formosanum hybrids as well as aid in the introgression of this trait into standard commercial lily classes.
Beth A. Fausey and Arthur C. Cameron*
Many herbaceous perennials require vernalization although effective temperatures (ET) and durations for specific species are largely unknown. To investigate vernalization of Laurentia axillaris (Lindl.) E. Wimm. and Veronica spicata L. `Red Fox', vegetative plugs were stored at -2.5, 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0 °C for 0 to 15 weeks (Laurentia) or 0 to 8 weeks (Veronica). Following storage, plugs were grown in a 20 °C glass greenhouse with a 16-h photoperiod. Laurentia plugs did not survive storage at -2.5 or 0 °C. Survival varied for plants stored at 2.5 °C, and some plants flowered. ET and the minimum duration for 100% flowering of Laurentia were: 5 weeks at 5 to 10 °C and 10 weeks at 12.5 °C. Time to first visible bud and node number below first visible bud decreased with increasing duration at ET. Veronica plugs survived storage at all temperatures. 100% flowering occurred when plants were vernalized at -2.5 and 0 °C for 4 or more weeks, at 2.5 and 5.0 °C for 6 or more weeks, and at 7.5 °C for 8 weeks. Incomplete vernalization (19 to 93%) occurred at temperatures of 2.5 °C for 4 weeks, 5 °C for 4 or 6 weeks, 7.5 °C for 6 weeks and at 10 °C for 6 or 8 weeks. Vernalization did not occur above 10 °C or following 2 weeks storage at any temperature. The percentage of reproductive lateral shoots increased while node number below the inflorescence remained constant or decreased with increasing storage at ET. The results indicate distinct vernalization optima for the two species; Laurentia 5 to 10 °C, and Veronica -2.5 to 0 °C. These differences provide evidence that separate “thermometers” may be involved in vernalization perception.
Roberto G. Lopez and Erik S. Runkle
Miltoniopsis orchids have appealing potted-plant characteristics, including large, fragrant, and showy pansylike flowers that range from white and yellow to shades of red and purple. Scheduling orchid hybrids to flower on specific dates requires knowledge of how light and temperature regulate the flowering process. We performed experiments to determine whether a 9- or 16-h photoperiod [short day (SD) or long day (LD)] before vernalization and vernalization temperatures of 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, or 23 °C under SD or LD regulate flowering of potted Miltoniopsis orchids. Flowering of Miltoniopsis Augres `Trinity' was promoted most when plants were exposed to SD and then vernalized at 11 or 14 °C. Additional experiments were performed to determine how durations of prevernalization SD and vernalization at 14 °C influenced flowering of Miltoniopsis Augres `Trinity' and Eastern Bay `Russian'. Plants were placed under SD or LD at 20 °C for 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 weeks and then transferred to 14 °C under SD for 8 weeks. Another set of plants was placed under SD or LD at 20 °C for 8 weeks and then transferred to 14 °C with SD for 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks. After treatments, plants were grown in a common environment at 20 °C with LD. Flowering of Miltoniopsis Augres `Trinity' was most complete and uniform (≥90%) when plants were exposed to SD for 4 or 8 weeks before 8 weeks of vernalization at 14 °C. Flowering percentage of Miltoniopsis Eastern Bay `Russian' was ≥80 regardless of prevernalization photoperiod or duration. This information could be used by greenhouse growers and orchid hobbyists to more reliably induce flowering of potted Miltoniopsis orchids.
Keith A. Funnell, Bruce R. MacKay and Ning Huang
Vernalization and growing degree-day requirements of Thalictrum delavayi `Hewitt's Double' were determined to improve the production scheduling of this cut flower crop. Two-year-old crowns of T. delavayi `Hewitt's Double', lifted in the fall, were exposed to cold storage for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 weeks at 8 ± 1°C. After storage, the containerized plants were grown at Massey Univ., Palmerston North (40°20.S) in a greenhouse heated at 15°C and vented at 20°C, under a natural photoperiod (11 h increasing to 13 h) plus a 4-h night interruption between 2200 and 0200 HR. As buds continued to develop during storage at 8°C, growing degree-days calculations were made over both storage and greenhouse forcing periods. All plants flowered, but T. delavayi `Hewitt's Double' nevertheless showed a quantitative vernalization requirement, being fully saturated after 6 weeks of cold storage at 8°C. With a base temperature of 0°C, time to flowering reduced from 3338 degree-days without vernalization to an average 2804 degree-days subsequent to the saturation of the vernalization response (6 to 15 weeks of vernalization). Flower yield averaged between three and five stems per plant, with stem lengths ranging between 140 and 200 cm. Differences in flower yield and quality among storage durations were minor and not commercially significant.
Catherine M. Whitman, Erik S. Runkle and Arthur C. Cameron
Flowering of Aquilegia is generally considered to require vernalization, while photoperiod has little or no effect. The cold treatment is most effective when plants have passed the juvenile stage (often 12 to 15 leaves) prior to vernalization. We performed experiments on a cultivar reported to have a reduced vernalization requirement. Seedlings of Aquilegia ×hybrida Sims `Origami Blue and White' in 128-cell plug trays with four or five leaves were either placed directly into a 5 °C cooler or transplanted to 13-cm containers. Plants were grown (bulked) for 0, 3, or 6 weeks at 20 °C under 9-h short days (SD) or 16-h long days (LD) provided by incandescent lamps at 1 to 3 μmol·m-2·s-1. Plants had seven or eight leaves after 3 weeks bulking and 13 or 14 leaves after 6 weeks bulking. They were then cooled at 5 °C for 0, 5, or 10 weeks and placed in a common forcing environment of 20 °C under an LD provided by high-pressure sodium lamps. Aquilegia plants placed directly into the forcing environment flowered in 89 and 97 days in years 1 and 2, respectively. Flowering percentage of plants cooled in the plug tray decreased with increasing duration of cold treatment, and only 15% flowered after a 10-week cold treatment. All plants bulked for 3 or 6 weeks prior to cold treatment flowered, and in 26 to 35 days. Surprisingly, all plants that were moved directly from bulking treatments to the forcing environment (no cold treatment) flowered, and flowering was most rapid (36 days) in plants exposed to 6 weeks of SD before forcing. Therefore, our data indicate that SD can at least partially substitute for a cold treatment in this Aquilegia cultivar.
Jin Wang and Virginia R. Walter*
The effect of vernalization and two growth regulators Fascination™ and Pro-Gibb® on the growth, inflorescence development and flowering of Ornithogalum `Chesapeake Snowflake' was studied. Regardless of bulb size, chilling bulbs for 3 weeks at 10°C before planting accelerated flowering of the first inflorescence and shorten leaf length by 3-5cm as compared to non-chilled bulbs. Fascination™ 10% 100 μL and Pro-Gibb® 200 ppm accelerated flowering of first inflorescence by large bulbs (8- to 10-cm circumference) as compared to controls. PGR treatments appear to have no effect on small bulbs (3-5-cm circumference).
Sonali Padhye* and Arthur Cameron
Campanula `Birch Hybrid' has an obligate vernalization requirement, though little is known about the vernalization response as a function of temperature and duration. The objective of this study was to characterize the qualitative and quantitative effects of exposure to -2.5 to 20 °C on C. `Birch Hybrid' flowering. Plugs were bulked at 20 °C for 4 weeks and then transferred to -2.5, 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 or 20 °C for 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, or 12 weeks. Plugs were then potted and grown at 20 °C under 16-h photoperiod. Nine plants were used per treatment. Date of first open flower and the number of open flowers and flowering nodes 7 d later were recorded. No plants flowered after 0 or 3-week treatments. One plant held at 20 °C flowered and no plants flowered after exposure to 17.5 °C. After 5 weeks at 0 to 7.5 °C, 100% of plants flowered with the fastest flowering after 2.5 to 7.5 °C. The number of flowering nodes and open flowers were similar for plants held at -2.5 to 10 °C for 5 weeks. All plants flowered following 7 weeks at -2.5 to 12.5 °C, though flowering was quickest after exposure to 2.5 to 7.5 °C. After 7 weeks, plants held at -2.5 to 10 °C produced similar number of flowering nodes and open flowers. Following 9 weeks, all plants at -2.5 to 12.5 °C flowered and 2.5 to 7.5 °C treated plants flowered first. The number of flowering nodes was uniform across -2.5 to 12.5 °C and the highest number of flowers was produced at 12.5 °C. All plants held at -2.5 °C died after 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, all plants flowered following 0 to 15 °C. However, following 15 °C, plants produced fewer flowers and flowering nodes. Overall, the optimal vernalization response was between 0 to 7.5 °C.
Emily A. Clough, Arthur C. Cameron, Royal D. Heins and William H. Carlson
Influences of vernalization duration, photoperiod, forcing temperature, and plant growth regulators (PGRs) on growth and development of Oenothera fruticosa L. `Youngii-lapsley' (`Youngii-lapsley' sundrops) were determined. Young plants were vernalized at 5 °C for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 weeks under a 9-hour photoperiod and subsequently forced in a 20 °C greenhouse under a 16-hour photoperiod. Only one plant in 2 years flowered without vernalization, while all plants flowered after receiving a vernalization treatment, regardless of its duration. Thus, O. fruticosa had a nearly obligate vernalization requirement. Time to visible bud and flower decreased by ≈1 week as vernalization duration increased from 3 to 15 weeks. All plants flowered under 10-, 12-, 13-, 14-, 16-, or 24-hour photoperiods or a 4-hour night interruption (NI) in a 20 °C greenhouse following 15-weeks vernalization at 5 °C. Time to flower decreased by ≈2 weeks, flower number decreased, and plant height increased as photoperiod increased from 10 to 16 hours. Days to flower, number of new nodes, and flower number under 24 hour and NI were similar to that of plants grown under a 16-hour photoperiod. In a separate study, plants were vernalized for 15 weeks and then forced under a 16-h photoperiod at 15.2, 18.2, 20.6, 23.8, 26.8, or 29.8 °C (average daily temperatures). Plants flowered 35 days faster at 29.8 °C but were 18 cm shorter than those grown at 15.2 °C. In addition, plants grown at 29.8 °C produced only one-sixth the number of flowers (with diameters that were 3.0 cm smaller) than plants grown at 15.2 °C. Days to visible bud and flowering were converted to rates, and base temperature (Tb) and thermal time to flowering (degree-days) were calculated as 4.4 °C and 606 °days, respectively. Effects of foliar applications of ancymidol (100 mg·L-1), chlormequat (1500 mg·L-1), paclobutrazol (30 mg·L-1), daminozide (5000 mg·L-1), and uniconazole (15 mg·L-1) were determined on plants vernalized for 19 weeks and then forced at 20 °C under a 16-h photoperiod. Three spray applications of uniconazole reduced plant height at first flower by 31% compared with that of nontreated controls. All other PGRs did not affect plant growth. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat); butanedioic acid mono-(2,2-dimethyl hydrazide) (daminozide); (2R,3R+2S,3S)-1-(4-chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-2-[1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]) (paclobutrazol); (E)-(S)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3-ol (uniconazole).