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Zachary D. Small, James D. McCurdy, Erick D. Begitschke and Michael P. Richard

could examine the effectiveness of repeat applications of products such as 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop for season-long control of wild garlic. In addition, tank mixes containing both sulfonylurea and auxin-mimicking herbicides should be tested to explore

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Andrew J. Hephner, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck and Gerald M. Henry

(DAIT) ( Kopec et al., 2004b ). Umeda (2008) observed 86% khakiweed control 36 DAIT with applications of carfentrazone + 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba at 0.45 kg a.i./ha. Tank-mixing carfentrazone + 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba at 0.45 kg a.i./ha with

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Jim E. Wyatt, Marla C. Akridse and Douglas W. Hamilton

Studies were conducted in plastic foam trays in float tanks to investigate effects of aeration of the nutrient solution, tray management after seeding and addition of KNO3 fertilizer to the substrate media on tomato transplant growth. Aeration of the nutrient solution had no effect on rate of tomato seedling emergence or growth, even though dissolved O2 was higher in aerated tanks than in non-aerated tanks. Placing trays in the tanks immediately after seeding caused faster seedling emergence than either delaying placement in the tanks or stacking trays until emergence began. KNO3 at 20 g·kg dry Pro-Mix” media resulted in delayed initial emergence but no differences were found 7 days after planting. Initial tray treatments or addition of KNO3 to the media had no effects on final tomato transplant size.

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Gene Miyao, R.M. Davis and P.A. Mauk

Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato is a major springtime disease of tomato during rainy weather conditions in California. Application timing as a calendar spray was compared to pre-anticipated rainfall treatments of either cupric hydroxide alone or in a combined tank-mix with mancozeb. Plots were established in grower fields with natural infestations. In some instances, moderately severe infestations of speck caused as much as a 25% reduction in yield and slight delays in fruit maturity. Timing of treatments prior to rainfall was superior to calendar sprays. Slight improvement in disease suppression was achieved with a tank mix of mancozeb with copper compared to copper alone.

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Chuck Ingels and John Roncoroni

, the postemergent herbicides fluazifop and carfentrazone + 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba provided moderate control of wild oat and broadleaves, respectively, and a tank mix of the two products likewise provided moderate control. Reduced-risk herbicides

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James E. Barrett and Terril A. Nell

Euphorbia pulcherrima cvs. Freedom, SUPJIBI, and Celebrate 2 were sprayed with paclobutrazol or a tank mix of daminozide and chlormequat at week 40, 41, 42, 43, or 44. Application time had little effect on plant size. The tank mix had greater efficacy on `Freedom' but not on the other cultivars. Interactions for bract size indicated: 1) time of application had less effect on `Freedom', 2) there was little difference between the chemicals on `SUPJIBI', but the tank mix had greater efficacy on the other cultivars, and 3) the tank mix had greater efficacy than paclobutrazol during weeks 41, 42, and 43.

`Freedom', `Celebrate 2', `SUPJIBI', and `V-14 Glory' were planted on 8 or 15 Aug. and placed under short days on 12, 19, or 26 Sept. `Freedom' reached anthesis between 30 Oct. and 6 Nov., about 5 days before `SUPJIBI' and `Celebrate 2' and 7-10 days ahead of `V-14 Glory'. `Freedom' planted in Aug. and given short days 14 days apart flowered only 7 days apart (40 to 47 days from start of short days), but when planted in Sept. flowering was in 54 days and each long day resulted in 1 day delay in flowering.

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Christian A. Wyenandt, Nancy Maxwell and Daniel L. Ward

important for growers who have resistance on their farm to know which fungicides belong to FRAC code 11 so that these fungicides are used in tank mixes and/or in rotations with other fungicide chemistries (i.e., FRAC codes) and not used in alternation with

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Daniel F. Warnock and Heather Lash

Greenhouses contain a vast array of insect, mite, and disease pests primarily managed by applications of conventional and biorational pesticides including insecticides, miticides, and fungicides. However, biorational pesticides have a narrow range of pest activity. As a result, greenhouse producers tank mix to broaden application activity. Research has demonstrated that tank mixing can result in either synergistic or antagonistic interactions for targeted pests. However, the impact of tank mixing insecticides and fungicides on predatory mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris, used to manage western flower thrips, Franklinella occidentalis, is unknown. The objective of this research was to determine how mixtures of four different pesticides (Conserve, Avid, Cleary's, and Decree), alone and in all possible combinations affect predatory mite survival in a laboratory bioassay. Individual 2-day-old adult mites, isolated in a cell of a bioassay tray, were exposed to one of the 15 pesticide treatments, or a water control. Treatments were replicated 15 times. Trays were held in an environmental chamber and mite mortality was assessed after 24 hours. Mite mortality was differentially impacted by some pesticide treatments when compared with the water control. One pesticide mixture, Conserve + Cleary's, significantly reduced mite survival compared to other pesticide treatments or the water control. Up to 70% of the mites exposed to this treatment died. The combination of Conserve + Cleary's should be avoided as a tank mixture when the biological control agent, Neoseiulus cucumeris, is used to manage western flower thrips.

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Wayne C. Porter

Studies were conducted to evaluate metolachlor for weed control and crop tolerance in sweet potatoes. Metolachlor was applied posttransplant at rates of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 lb/A. Tank-mix combinations of metolachlor + clomazone were also evaluated. Clomazone was the standard herbicide used for comparison. Metolachlor alone or in combination with clomazone did not cause any serious reduction in sweet potato plant vigor when applied posttransplant. Metolachlor provided excellent control of Brachiaria platyphylla, Cyperus iria, Cyperus esculentus, and Amaranthus hybridus. Tank-mixes with clomazone did not improve the weed control of metolachlor alone. Yields of No. 1 and marketable roots from metolachlor treated plots were equal to or greater than yields from plots treated with clomazone.

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Shiv D. Sharma and M. Singh

Various combinations of glyphosate and 2,4-D (± surfactant) were evaluated for control of Brazil pusley [Richardia brasiliensis (Moq.) Gomez]. Typical 2,4-D symptoms on plants were manifested within 2 to 3 days after treatment. Application of glyphosate alone had only marginal effects (14%) on Brazil pusley, but the addition of Induce® (nonionic surfactant) significantly increased control to 83% and reduced the fresh weight by 68%. Application of Landmaster®II or a tank-mix of glyphosate + 2,4-D (± surfactants) resulted in 96% to 100% control. Treatment with 2,4-D alone, or with Induce®, or L-77® (organosilicone surfactant) resulted in 84%, 90%, or 100% control, respectively. Very low fresh weights of Brazil pusley were recorded when 2,4-D +Induce® or L-77®, Landmaster®II (± surfactants), or the tank-mix (± surfactants) were applied. In the regrowth studies, shoot weight was greater following application of glyphosate with or without L-77® or Kinetic® (a blend of nonionic and organosilicone) than following other treatments. The fresh weight of the shoots in the regrowth study, recorded following the application of 2,4-D or Landmaster®II (± surfactants), was very low except when Kinetic® was added to Landmaster®II. No regrowth of shoots occurred following the tank-mix treatment. Similar observations were recorded for roots. Plants treated with 2,4-D did not regrow. The presence of 2,4-D in either formulation accelerated synergistic effect of the glyphosate to the target site. Therefore, 2,4-D could be used either as a component of a formulation or in a tank-mix with glyphosate to control Brazil pusley. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) (glyphosate); 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).