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Shawna L. Daley, William Patrick Wechter and Richard L. Hassell

ground using a mortar and pestle and stored at −20 °C until analyzed. Carbohydrate extraction. Glucose, sucrose, fructose, and starch were enzymatically extracted from 70 mg dried, ground tissue following the protocol of Zhao et al. (2010) . Microplate

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Shawna L. Daley, Jeffrey Adelberg and Richard L. Hassell

a starch increase of 100- and 200-fold in hypocotyls of bottle gourd and interspecific hybrid squash rootstocks, respectively, over 21 d after fatty alcohol treatment ( Daley et al., 2014 ). We hypothesize that this increase of stored energy in the

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Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol

analogous to the triploid endosperm of angiosperm seeds. Studies of cycad megagametophytes may increase our understanding of evolution of the angiosperm endosperm ( Brenner et al., 2003 ). The starch content of cycad megagametophyte tissue has been exploited

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Ricardo Goenaga, Brian Irish and Angel Marrero

sugars and starch, 500-mg fruit samples were collected at harvest time (mature green stage) and ground after lyophilization. A fruit sample subset was allowed to fully ripen (ripened yellow stage) and analyzed for sugars and starch. Soluble sugars were

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X. Fan, J.P. Mattheis, M.E. Patterson and J.K. Fellman

Total starch and amylose (AM) concentration and a starch index (SI) were determined in `Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit from weekly harvests in 1990 and 1991. As apples matured, SI scores increased and total starch and amylose content decreased. The percentage of AM in the total starch decreased as the apples matured. Because KI solutions interact efficiently only with AM, the SI is less reliable in representing total starch during later stages of `Fuji' apple maturation.

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K.E. Tripp, M.M. Peet, D.H. Willits and D.M. Pharr

Two cultivars of greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with ambient or 1000 μl CO2/liter during Jan.-June 1987 and 1988. In both years, CO2-enrichment increased foliar deformation and foliar starch, but during the season, foliar starch levels decreased while deformation increased. `Laura' had more deformation, while `Michigan-Ohio' had higher foliar starch concentration. During an entire season, there was no significant relationship between foliar starch concentration and deformation severity. Foliar C exchange rates in the lower canopy were not affected by severity of deformation. Data from these experiments do not support the hypothesis that excess foliar starch is responsible for foliar deformation at elevated CO2.

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Thomas E. Marler and Gil N. Cruz

seed infestations by A. yasumatsui on nonstructural carbohydrate relations of various C. micronesica seed tissues. We predicted free sugars and starch would decline following A. yasumatsui herbivory and the relative declines of carbohydrates in

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Martin P.N. Gent

). When spinach was grown in a controlled environment and provided 1, 3, or 6 m m nitrate, nitrogen limitation at 1 m m caused a simultaneous rise in foliar levels of phosphate, sucrose, and starch ( Robinson, 1997 ). Under controlled conditions, nitrate

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Thomas E. Marler

concentrations of four free sugars (the hexoses fructose and glucose, and the disaccharides sucrose and maltose) were determined using HPLC-RI (Thermo Scientific RI-150, AS3000 autosampler, P2000 pump; Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). Starch was quantified using

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Nicky G. Seager and Roger M. Haslemore

Experiments investigating kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] maturation were undertaken requiring the determination of total soluble sugar (TSS) and starch concentrations in numerous fruit samples. The phenol-sulfuric acid assay was judged to he a convenient method for determining TSS from tissue extracts and gave results similar to those obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The starch procedure adopted involved gelatinizing fruit tissue using hot water and a thermostable α -amylase (Termamyl); hydrolizing starch using amyloglucosidase; and determining glucose using glucose oxidase. The methods enabled one person to analyze up to 40 kiwifruit samples for TSS and starch concentrations during 9 hours and likely will be applicable to research concerning fruit development and maturation.