`Agriset-761' and `CPT-5' tomato fruits were harvested at green stage and subsequently exposed to a postharvest exogenous ethylene-air mixture (100 ppm C2H4 at 20°C). Tomatoes with visual symptoms of ripening (breaker stage = <10% red coloration) were removed from ethylene treatment after 1, 3, and 5 days and were transferred to 20°C and 85% RH. At “table-ripe” stage (full red coloration and 4-mm fruit deformation after 5 email@example.comN), whole fruit samples were analyzed for difference/discrimination sensory evaluations, aroma volatile profiles, and chemical composition. Flavor of fruits gassed for 1 day was rated significantly different than that of fruits gassed for 3 or 5 days (n = 25 panelists) for both cultivars. Several panelists noted the perception of “rancid” and “metallic” tastes, and “lingering” aftertaste in fruits gassed for 5 days. Chemical composition assays showed that flavor differences could be partially due to a significant increase in pH values between fruits gassed for 1 and 5 days (4.23 and 4.34, respectively for `Agriset-761') and a significant decrease in titratable acidity (0.91% and 0.73%, respectively, for `Agriset-761'; 1.04% and 0.86%, respectively, for `CPT-5'). No significant differences in soluble solids content or total sugars were found in any treatments for either cultivar. `Agriset-761' showed significant increases in the concentrations of acetone, hexanal, 2+3 methylbutanol, and a decrease in 2-isobutylthiazole, whereas, `CPT-5' fruits showed significant increases in hexanal, 2+3 methylbutanol, trans-2-heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, β-ionone, geranylacetone, and a decrease is ethanol concentration. In both cultivars, these significant differences in important aroma volatile compounds could be of enormous relevance in the perception of off-flavor/off-odors.
Fernando Maul, Steven A. Sargent, Elizabeth A. Baldwin and Charles Sims
Ramón A. Arancibia and Carl E. Motsenbocker
Pectin metabolism was analyzed in tabasco pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) to determine the metabolic process associated with the ease of fruit detachment from the calyx. The ease of fruit detachment (deciduous fruit) is a desirable trait in peppers that facilitates mechanical harvest. Two genotypes that differ in the fruit detachment force were used: `Easy Pick' (EZ), which requires a low force, and `Hard Pick' (HP), which requires higher force. Pectin dissolution in water from fresh-ripe EZ tissue was 20 times higher than from HP tissue. EDTA-soluble uronide from inactivated EZ cell wall, however, was only 1.8 times higher. Pectin dissolution was inversely correlated to the fruit detachment force and followed a sigmoidal curve during fruit ripening. Size-exclusion chromatography of EDTA-soluble polyuronides indicated that pectin was degraded in ripe fruit tissue from both genotypes. The degree of depolymerization, however, was more extensive in EZ fruit. Consequently, the ease of fruit detachment was attributed to pectin ultra-degradation. Total pectin content in dry tissue and ethanol/acetone-extracted cell wall was similar in both genotypes. Pectin content in dry tissue was maintained throughout ripening, while extracted cell wall pectin increased slightly. In contrast, the degree of pectin esterification of extracted cell wall decreased only in ripe EZ fruit. These results suggest that pectin de-esterification may have a role in the enhanced pectin depolymerization and consequently in the ease of fruit detachment of the EZ genotype.
Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez, María Dolores Muy-Rangel and Arturo Gaytán Mascorro
Fruit water loss significantly affects the quality of bell peppers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fruit weight, size, and stage of ripeness on the rate of water loss and permeance to water vapor. Fruit surface area/weight ratio decreased logarithmically with increases in fruit size, with smaller fruit showing larger changes in the ratio than larger fruit. Mean water loss rate for individual fruit and permeance to water vapor declined with increases in fruit size and as fruit ripeness progressed. Fruit surface area/weight ratio and rate of water loss were both highest in immature fruit and showed no differences between mature green and red fruit. In mature fruit, permeance to water vapor for the skin and calyx were 29 μmol·m–2·s–1·kPa–1 and 398 μmol·m–2·s–1·kPa–1, respectively. About 26% of the water loss in mature fruit occurred through the calyx. There was a decline in firmness, water loss rate, and permeance to water vapor of the fruit with increasing fruit water loss during storage.
Maalekuu Kissinger, Sharon Tuvia-Alkalai, Yavin Shalom, Elazar Fallik, Yonatan Elkind, Matthew A. Jenks and Mark S. Goodwin
Fruit of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is hollow by nature, which limits its water reservoir capacity, and as such, small amounts of water loss result in loss of freshness and firmness, which reduce fruit quality, shelf life, and market value. In order to understand the basis for water loss from fruit, 10 pepper accessions with wide variation in water loss rate were used to study physiological and biochemical factors associated with postharvest water loss in ripe pepper fruit during storage. Postharvest water loss rate in ripe pepper fruit stored at 20 °C, and 85% relative humidity, was found to be associated with cell membrane ion leakage, lipoxygenase activity, and total cuticular wax amount. Total cuticular wax amounts were highest in the high-water-loss pepper fruit, and lowest in the low-water-loss fruit. However, total cuticle amount (isolated enzymatically and quantified gravimetrically), total cutin monomer amount, and the amount of individual cutin monomer and wax constituents (determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry) indicated no direct association with postharvest water loss rates. Fruit fresh weight, pericarp weight, pericarp surface area, pericarp thickness, initial water content, and dry matter were highly associated with each other, but less so with water loss rate. Fruit of accessions displaying high fruit water loss rate matured and ripened earlier than fruit of accessions displaying low-water-loss rate. Cell membrane ion leakage and lipoxygenase activity were higher after storage than immediately after harvest. Pepper fruit total cuticle wax amount, lipoxygenase activity, and cell membrane ion leakage were directly related to postharvest water loss rate in pepper fruit during storage.
Muharrem Ergun, Donald J. Huber, Jiwon Jeong and Jerry A. Bartz
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of ethylene action, via use of the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), on the senescence and quality of fresh-cut ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. `Sunrise Solo') fruit. Ripe papaya fruit were treated with 2.5 μL·L-1 1-MCP and immediately processed into fresh-cut slices or left intact. At 2-day intervals over 10 days at 5 °C, continuously stored slices were monitored for ethylene production, firmness, electrolyte leakage, color, sensory changes, and pathogen incidence. Slices freshly prepared from intact fruit stored under identical conditions were measured similarly. Ethylene production did not differ significantly between the treatments, although production rates were slightly but consistently higher in slices from intact control compared with intact 1-MCP-treated fruit. Mesocarp firmness of continuously stored slices and slices from fruit stored intact was significantly retained by 1-MCP. Firmness of continuously stored slices from 1-MCP-treated fruit declined 50% compared with 75% for control slices. Firmness of fresh-cut slices prepared from intact control and 1-MCP-treated fruit at each sampling interval declined 26% and 15%, respectively. Electrolyte leakage remained low and changed little in slices freshly prepared from fruit stored intact. Leakage from continuously stored papaya slices increased after 4 days, and after 6 days controls increased significantly compared with stored slices derived from papaya fruit initially treated with the ethylene antagonist. The flesh color of continuously stored slices or slices prepared from fruit stored intact was influenced by 1-MCP only during the later periods of storage. Microbial counts in stored slices or slices prepared at each sampling were generally unaffected by 1-MCP. Informal sensory analysis indicated that the edible shelf life was 6 days in stored slices from 1-MCP-treated fruit compared with 2 to 3 days for stored slices from control fruit.
Thomas Gradziel and Sabrina Marchand
‘Vilmos’ peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] produces a clingstone fruit with nonmelting flesh and is suitable for processing or fresh market. Fruit can maintain quality and firmness for up to 4 weeks after the initial tree-ripe stage. This “stay-ripe
R.J. Bender, J.K. Brecht, E.A. Baldwin and T.M.M. Malundo
To determine the effects of fruit maturity, storage temperature, and controlled atmosphere (CA) on aroma volatiles, mature-green (MG) and tree-ripe (TR) `Tommy Atkins' mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) were stored for 21 days in air or in CA (5% O2 plus 10% or 25% CO2). The MG fruit were stored at 12 °C and the TR fruit at either 8 or 12 °C. Homogenized mesocarp tissue from fruit that had ripened for 2 days in air at 20 °C after the 21-day storage period was used for aroma volatile analysis. The TR mangoes produced much higher levels of all aroma volatiles except hexanal than did MG fruit. Both MG and TR mangoes stored in 25% CO2 tended to have lower terpene (especially p-cymene) and hexanal concentrations than did those stored in 10% CO2 and air-stored fruit. Acetaldehyde and ethanol levels tended to be higher in TR mangoes from 25% CO2 than in those from 10% CO2 or air storage, especially at 8 °C. Inhibition of volatile production by 25% CO2 was greater in MG than in TR mangoes, and at 8 °C compared to 12 °C for TR fruit. However, aroma volatile levels in TR mangoes from the 25% CO2 treatment were in all cases equal to or greater than those in MG fruit treatments. The results suggest that properly selected atmospheres, which prolong mango shelf life by slowing ripening processes, can allow TR mangoes to be stored or shipped without sacrificing their superior aroma quality.
Fernando Maul, Steven A. Sargent, Murat O. Balaban, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Donald J. Huber and Charles A. Sims
The effect of physiological maturity at harvest on ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) volatile profiles was studied using ripening response time (in days) to 100 μL·L-1 exogenous ethylene treatment as a tool to separate immature-green from mature-green fruit. Electronic nose (EN) sensor array and gas chromatography (GC) analyses were used to document volatile profile changes in tomatoes that required a 1-, 3-, or 5-day ethylene treatment to reach the breaker stage. EN output analysis using multivariate discriminant and canonical analyses classified intact tomato and whole tomato homogenate samples that required 3 or 5 days of ethylene treatment as significantly different (P < 0.01) from those that required only 1 day. The GC aroma profiles from whole tomato homogenate showed that 1-day fruit had significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of 1-penten-3-one, cis-3-hexenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, and geranylacetone when compared to 5-day fruit. Analysis of excised tomato tissues showed that pericarp (including columnella) produced an average 219% greater concentration of the 16 aroma volatiles quantified by GC when compared to locular gel (442 and 203 μL·L-1, respectively). EN analysis concurred with GC by showing greater average Mahalanobis distance between pericarp tissue groupings when compared to locular gel groupings (78.25 and 12.33 units, respectively). Pericarp tissue from the 5-day ethylene treatment showed significantly lower levels of 1-penten-3-one, trans-2-heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, geranylacetone, and β-ionone compared to the 1- and 3-day treatments, Similarly, locular gel from the 3- and 5-day ethylene treatments had significantly lower levels of 1-penten-3-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane compared to 1-day samples. cis-3-Hexenol in locular gel was the only volatile compound that showed significantly higher levels with increasing ethylene treatment. EN analysis showed greater Mahalanobis distances between 1- and 3-day ethylene samples than between 3- and 5-day ethylene samples (32.09 and 12.90, 24.14 and 6.52, 116.31 and 65.04, and 15.74 and 13.28 units, for intact tomato, whole tomato, pericarp, and locular gel homogenate, respectively).
Jiwon Jeong and Donald Huber
The present study was performed to characterize the physiological responses of cantaloupe [Cucumismelo (L.) var. reticulates`Athena'] fruit harvested at preripe (1/4 slip), half-slip, and full-slip stages of development and treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) prior to storage at 13 or 15 °C. Cantaloupe fruit (1/4 to full-slip stage) were treated with 1-MCP (0.01 and 1 μL·L-1) for 18 hours at 20 °C and then stored at 15 °C (pre-ripe fruit) or 13 °C (half- and full-slip fruit). The firmness of pre-ripe `Athena' fruit was significantly retained in response to 1 μL·L-1 1-MCP, but did not differ greatly from control fruit in response to 0.01 μL·L-1 1-MCP. Control fruit reached an edible condition (≈70 N) after 6 days of storage at 15 °C and persisted until day 12 (50 N), whereas 1 μL·L-1 1-MCP-treated fruit reached an edible stage after 17 days and persisted through 21 days (over 60 N). Fruit treated with 1-MCP exhibited slightly (0.01 μL·L-1) or dramatically (1 μL·L-1) lower electrolyte leakage throughout storage. 1-MCP (1 μL·L-1) significantly suppressed ethylene production and respiratory rates of pre-ripe cantaloupe during storage at 15 °C. Firmness retention was also highly significant for cantaloupe harvested and treated with 1-MCP (1 μL·L-1) at the half-slip and full-slip stages of development. 1-MCP treatment had a significant effect at reducing decay incidence and the occurrence of depressed or sunken regions of the fruit surface.
Libin Wang, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Zhifang Yu and Jinhe Bai
. Table 1. Impact of refrigeration and blanching on volatile profile in full ripe ‘FL 47’ tomato fruits. z Headspace gas chromatography volatile analysis. Volatile analysis was conducted by headspace, solid phase microextraction, and gas chromatography