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and species or cultivars of tree peony (section Moutan ) served as the male parent ( Qin, 2004 ; Yang and Yu, 2016 ). Herbaceous peonies have rich germplasm diversity in terms of external morphology and chromosome ploidy ( Hao et al., 2016 ; Ji et

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to be a more cost-effective way of producing a large number of markers ( Mueller and Wolfenbarger, 1999 ). In this study, we use AFLP, in conjunction with ploidy analysis and plant phenotype, to elucidate the reproductive mechanisms of Aronia

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release or bloom delay techniques ( Naor et al., 2003 ). Kiwifruit ( Actinidia ) is a functionally dioecious liana with variable ploidy levels (e.g., diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid) ( Huang et al., 2000 ; Li et al., 2010 ). Most current kiwifruit

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Genome size, chromosome number, and ploidy level are important biological parameters for plant breeding, systematics, and evolution. Since the first published chromosome counts of plants in 1882 ( Garbari et al., 2012 ), ≈25% of angiosperms have

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, depending on taxonomic treatment ( Li, 2011 ; Suh et al., 2000 ; Zhang et al., 2010 ). Although many teams are working on clarifying taxonomy, relatively little has been reported on genome size and ploidy level within the genus. Three original papers

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Phlox (Polemoniaceae) is a phenotypically diverse genus with substantial interpopulation differentiation for numerous morphological characters and ploidy; it includes ≈65 species with centers of diversity in the eastern and western United States

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breeding work, ploidy manipulation is a valuable tool for improving crop quality or production and polyploids promote evolution history significantly ( Adams and Wendel, 2005 ; Leitch and Bennett, 1997 ; Otto and Whitton, 2000 ). Polyploidization often

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successfully used in warm-season grasses ( Harris-Shultz et al., 2013 ; Mulkey et al., 2013 ). With the interest in little bluestem, and the horticultural planting of a few recommended cultivars, we aimed to determine ploidy level and to create SSR markers to

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lantana in Australia also differed dramatically in pollen viability and ploidy level/chromosome number. The weedy form had ≈65% pollen stainability and was a tetraploid with 2 n = 4 x = 48 chromosomes, whereas the garden form had extremely low pollen

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as Cornus ( Shearer and Ranney, 2013 ) and Magnolia ( Parris et al., 2010 ). When combining genome sizes with their corresponding chromosome counts, genome size data can be used to discover ploidy variation among related taxa ( Contreras et al

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