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species contain an additional mechanism for induction of growth cessation through a pathway mediated by photoperiod sensitivity. Ecotypic variation for growth cessation in response to the decreasing photoperiods that occur in northern latitudes in late

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Abbreviations: LD, long days: LIP, limited inductive photoperiod; SD, short days; SLD, short-long day. 1 `Former Graduate Student. 2 Associate Professor. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under

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Abbreviation∼ CHO, carbohydrate; DW, dry weight PE, photoperiod extension; Pn, photosynthesis; PPF, photosynthetic photon flux; SLW, specific leaf weight. 1 Currently, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Horticulture, Forestry, Landscape, and Parks, South

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Abstract

More rhizomes were initiated by plants of ‘Astrid’ chrysanthemum grown in short day and cool air temperature than in long day and warm air. Rhizome development was greatest, shoot growth was enhanced, and root length and dry weight increased with warm compared to cool soil temperature. Rhizomes grown at a cool soil temperature either in long or short days had the least cellular injury after exposure to –8°C.

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, when light levels are low and ambient photoperiods are short, necessitating the use of supplemental lighting to promote flowering. Breeding efforts have been successful in reducing the strength of the photoperiodic response (i.e., reducing the delay in

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as the same daily amount of light is provided over a longer photoperiod. Growing greenhouse crops with longer photoperiods can also be advantageous because lower electricity prices may be available at night ( Albright et al., 2000 ). However, similar

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developed for use as cut flowers to long or short photoperiods in experiments over 5 years, and classified their responses. The objectives of the current work were to test cut-flower cultivars of sunflower for the effect of daylength in the seedling stage on

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× graeseri is a hybrid of H. gaertneri and H. rosea ( Barthlott and Taylor, 1995 ). Flowering may be achieved through photoperiod manipulation (photoinduction); Hatiora sp. are classified as short–long-day plants for flowering from 15 to 20 °C ( Boyle

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, light intensity, pruning, and photoperiod ( Hackett and Sachs, 1985 ; Norcini et al., 1994 ). ‘Afterglow’ bougainvillea ( Bougainvillea × buttiana ) plants grown under SDs (8 h) had visible inflorescences within 30 d, with 8 to 10 inflorescences per

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potentially optimize seedlings by stimulating plant photoreceptors that regulate growth and morphology (photomorphogenesis) ( Gómez and Mitchell, 2015 ). The emerging high-intensity LED lamps are an alternative for supplemented photoperiods due to their long

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