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to increase BCA survival under adverse environmental conditions ( Wraight et al., 2001 ). Some carriers include fine clay, peat, vermiculite, alginate, wheat, bran, talc, diatomaceous earth, and pasteurized soil ( Boyetchko et al., 1998 ). We propose

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The most common substrate used in horticulture for growing seedlings and soilless plants cultivation is peat, alone or in mixture ( Chavez et al., 2008 ), because of its good chemical and physical properties. Unfortunately, peat is a very expensive

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mixed, can be used to produce substrates with the appropriate physical, chemical, and biological characteristics to grow different crops under diverse cultural conditions ( Burés, 1997 ). Currently, sphagnum peat provides the base material for the

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thresholds and the number of cycles were the initial inputs for this program. Tests were then carried out automatically. Sample preparation. The experiments were conducted on a fine (0 to ≈10 mm) and slightly decomposed sphagnum peat from Ireland, chosen

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Traditionally, greenhouse and nursery operations formulate container substrates primarily from peatmoss (peat), pine bark (PB), perlite, or vermiculite for the production of most all bedding plants and nursery ornamentals ( Nelson, 2012 ). Of these

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castor oil–based biopolyurethane, uncoated paper fiber, rice hull, coconut coir, and peat. z Paclobutrazol treatments and culture. Containers were filled with 590 mL of commercial substrate composed of (by vol) 75% canadian sphagnum ( Spagnum sp.) moss

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the recommended pH range (5.4 to 6.2) for petunia ( Petunia ×hybrida ), with the exception of the peat-lite (control), which was at the upper limit of the recommended pH range. Some authors have reported that no lime addition was needed for 100% wood

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availability and economics ( Mann, 2015 ). Previously, we investigated how growth and nutrition of blueberry was influenced by altering the ratios of three common substrates, including peat, coir, and douglas fir bark, in media containing 10% perlite, by volume

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of the advantages of greenhouse-grown transplants are that they can be started early, have uniformity in growth, and are robust and have healthy root systems ( Cantliffe, 1993 ). Production of transplants in small cells in peat-based medium is the

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. 1) and on 27 July 2003 (Expt. 2) in polystyrene trays with 176 cells (2.9-cm diameter, 4-cm deep, 26.43-cm 3 volume) and filled with different media: 1) peat (type S, fine texture; Floragard Vertriebs, GmbH, Oldenburg, Germany); 2) vermiculite

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