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must be taken into account when farmers want to join integrated production programs or organic farming systems. Recent European Union guidelines promote limited or reduced pesticide use and recommend using physical/nonchemical alternatives ( European

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expenses, and enhanced sustainability. Several studies have shown that low-trellis hop farming systems offer benefits related to environmental protection, because phytosanitary treatments can be carried out more efficiently and with less dispersion because

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then harvested at the end of the season; whereas, landscaped green roofs have perennial biomass cover. It has been suggested that plant establishment and the reduction of labile organic matter in the substrate via decomposition and assimilation would

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long-term organic farming systems project with agronomic, animal, and horticulture components. Two organic production systems were initiated. One was a crop-livestock experiment and the other a market garden experiment, data from which are reported here

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The demand for heirloom tomato varieties has increased consistently over the last couple of decades, driven by sprouting farmers markets, growing interest in organic produce, and local food movements. Heirloom varieties are valued for their improved

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-based media production methods remain among the most common forms of urban agriculture ( Mok et al. 2014 ). Furthermore, controlled environment agriculture and vertical farming require a huge initial investment and energy, making these methods less sustainable

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entitled “Organic Farming and Gardening” that piloted as a one-credit version in year 2006. An expanded two-credit version continued from 2007 to 2009 as conventional classes for undergraduate students in the curricula of the Rutgers School of Environmental

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certified organic grafted transplants were produced at Black River Organic Farm to determine the feasibility and utility of grafting for a small-scale organic farming operation ( O'Connell et al., 2009b ). Transplants were produced in three batches of about

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Organic farming is rapidly increasing in U.S. agriculture. Weeds are listed as the number one problem for organic producers ( Walz, 1999 ). Only a few organic herbicides are used in organic farming systems ( Webber III et al., 2012 ). MSMs as by

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expensive, more labor-intensive, and require higher input than farming in the ground (Appolldoni et al. 2021; Buehler and Junge 2016; Specht et al. 2014; Thomaier et al. 2014 ; Whittinghill and Rowe 2012 ). Several different rooftop agriculture practices

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