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soluble, struvite dissolves in soils as a result of low NH 4 + concentrations resulting from the nitrification process. As it dissolves, struvite supplies both N and P to growing plants. Studies report variable agronomic effectiveness of guano as a P

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leguminous species, which biologically fixes N and provides a pollinator habitat ( Abraham et al., 2010 ; Held and Potter, 2012 ; Rogers and Potter, 2004 ), is a proposed means of increasing the sustainability of certain low-maintenance turfgrass scenarios

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-sun conditions. Currently, there is increased interest by the United States and European turfgrass industry in the use of fine-leaf fescue for lawn and golf turf as well as low-maintenance turf settings. Fine-leaf fescue is especially useful for settings

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maintenance and reducing the pathogen load associated with untreated and recycled irrigation water. Given that ozone exposure, as a component of photochemical smog, is a significant plant production issue in many key North American and European nursery

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Establishing turfgrass in shaded environments can create a unique maintenance challenge. Approximately 20% to 25% of all turfgrasses are grown in low light intensity environments ( Beard, 1973 ). Reductions in light intensity may decrease the

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Germplasm for this investigation was generously provided by Earl J. Small Growers, Pinellas Park, Fla., and by J and L Plants, Amarillo, Texas. Consultation with Robert Griesbach of the USDA-ARS Florist and Nursery Crops Laboratory

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moisture retention, effects on plant growth differed between the establishment and maintenance periods. In cases in which the speed of establishment is of major importance such as in sod farms, substrate S:OMC H could be used, because it provided the best

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Abstract

Forty-five indigenous Western plants, mostly herbaceous perennials, were transplanted into a field plot and evaluated for water requirements and landscape value. The majority of species showed no significant differences in growth between irrigated and nonirrigated treatments. Several species are suggested for use as ornamentals in dryland or low-maintenance situations.

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Hundreds of perennial plant species native to the midwestern United States have potential as ornamentals, but information on how best to use such plants in the landscape remains scarce. Many horticulturists are looking for species that perform well under low-maintenance conditions and that also attract and benefit desirable fauna, such as butterflies and birds. While many of our native plants may fit into this category, not all such species will meet aesthetic criteria for home landscapes. Some native species respond to seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall by browning or going dormant. Others have very specific site requirements for moisture, soil, and humidity that may be difficult to meet in an urban landscape, or their size, growth habit, or other characteristics may make them aesthetically undesirable in the typical home landscape. This study evaluated the performance of 67 plant taxa native to the midwestern United States selected for their promising potential in a low-maintenance landscape situation.

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Wildflowers/native plants are increasingly being used in landscapes, especially in low maintenance areas. Buffalograss is also receiving attention as a low maintenance grass. Establishing wildflowers in buffalograss would be useful in sites where mowing occurred only once in the fall, such as with minimeadows. Four experiments were conducted to study the establishment of wildflowers in buffalograss. Survival of wildflowers after one year was 88% when wildflowers were planted as greenhouse grown transplants and buffalograss plugged in 2 weeks later, 67% when one-year-old field grown wildflowers were transplanted into buffalograss plugged at the same time and 48% when greenhouse grown wildflowers were transplanted into established buffalograss. Establishment of wildflowers overseeded into established buffalograss sod was very low. There were significant differences in wildflower survival within each study. Species which performed well in buffalograss included Leadplant, Blue Fax, Purple Prairie Clover, Little Bluestem and Stiff Goldenrod.

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