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Giuseppe Colla, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Paolo Bonini, and Youssef Rouphael

to biostimulant application was mainly investigated at the cell/tissue level (bioassays) and seedling stage under hydroponic or substrate culture ( Colla et al., 2013 , 2014 ; Lucini et al., 2015 ; Matsumiya and Kubo, 2011 ; Rouphael et al., 2017a

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Ying-Chun Chen, Chen Chang, and Huey-Ling Lin

slightly more active than m TR in wheat senescence and tobacco callus bioassays ( Werbrouck et al., 1996 ). According to previous studies, m T is considered the most active of the natural aromatic cytokinins; when used instead of the widely used BA, it

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Masoume Amirkhani, Anil N. Netravali, Wencheng Huang, and Alan G. Taylor

) conducted laboratory bioassays using a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by soaking corn seedlings and tomato cuttings to the treatments ( Colla et al., 2014 ). In their study, the protein hydrolysate increased corn coleoptile elongation in a dose

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Cindy L. McKenzie and Joseph P. Albano

California and Arizona as a cotton pest and a vector of a crinivirus that causes lettuce infectious yellows disorder in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) and melons ( Cucumis melo ) ( Duffus, 1995 ). Bean golden mosaic, tomato mottle, and tomato yellow leaf curl

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Konstantinos F. Bertsouklis and Maria Papafotiou

al., 2010 ; Karam and Al-Salem, 2001 ; Kose, 1998 ; Olmez et al., 2007 ; Tilki, 2004 ; Tilki and Guner, 2007 ), it may have promoted germination at supraoptimal high temperatures, as has been shown in lettuce ( Dong et al., 2012 ). Our work

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Bert M. Cregg and Robert Schutzki

seed germination, especially weed seeds. For example, Duryea et al. (1999) observed allelopathic effects of several fresh mulches in bioassays on germination of lettuce seeds. Salicylic acid from bark of Chamaecyparis obtusa induced allelopathic

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Asmita Nagila, Brian J. Schutte, Soum Sanogo, and Omololu John Idowu

example, Earlywine et al. (2010) determined that MSM reduced stand densities of desirable turfgrass species by 77% to 81% compared with a nontreated control. MSMs have also been reported to reduce seedling emergence of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ), carrot

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Sanjeev K. Bangarwa, Jason K. Norsworthy, Edward E. Gbur, and John D. Mattice

purple nutsedge has reduced the yield of cucumber ( Cucumus sativus ) by 43%; tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) by 44%, lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) by 54%, cilantro ( Coriandrum sativum ) by 61%, bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) by 73%, and radish ( Raphanus

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson, and Gourav Sharma

competitiveness of sulfonylurea resistant and susceptible prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola ) Weed Technol. 6 303 309 Brosnan, J. Breeden, T. Vargas, G.K. Grier, L. 2015 A biotype of annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) in Tennessee is resistant to inhibitors of ALS

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Dennis C. Odero and Alan L. Wright

critical period for weed control in wide- and narrow-row corn Weed Sci. 52 802 807 Odero, D.C. Wright, A.L. 2013 Phosphorus application influences the critical period of weed control in lettuce Weed Sci. 61 410 414 R Development Core Team 2017 R: A language