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Giuseppe Colla, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Paolo Bonini and Youssef Rouphael

to biostimulant application was mainly investigated at the cell/tissue level (bioassays) and seedling stage under hydroponic or substrate culture ( Colla et al., 2013 , 2014 ; Lucini et al., 2015 ; Matsumiya and Kubo, 2011 ; Rouphael et al., 2017a

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Masoume Amirkhani, Anil N. Netravali, Wencheng Huang and Alan G. Taylor

) conducted laboratory bioassays using a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by soaking corn seedlings and tomato cuttings to the treatments ( Colla et al., 2014 ). In their study, the protein hydrolysate increased corn coleoptile elongation in a dose

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Cindy L. McKenzie and Joseph P. Albano

California and Arizona as a cotton pest and a vector of a crinivirus that causes lettuce infectious yellows disorder in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) and melons ( Cucumis melo ) ( Duffus, 1995 ). Bean golden mosaic, tomato mottle, and tomato yellow leaf curl

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Konstantinos F. Bertsouklis and Maria Papafotiou

al., 2010 ; Karam and Al-Salem, 2001 ; Kose, 1998 ; Olmez et al., 2007 ; Tilki, 2004 ; Tilki and Guner, 2007 ), it may have promoted germination at supraoptimal high temperatures, as has been shown in lettuce ( Dong et al., 2012 ). Our work

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Bert M. Cregg and Robert Schutzki

seed germination, especially weed seeds. For example, Duryea et al. (1999) observed allelopathic effects of several fresh mulches in bioassays on germination of lettuce seeds. Salicylic acid from bark of Chamaecyparis obtusa induced allelopathic

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Sanjeev K. Bangarwa, Jason K. Norsworthy, Edward E. Gbur and John D. Mattice

purple nutsedge has reduced the yield of cucumber ( Cucumus sativus ) by 43%; tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) by 44%, lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) by 54%, cilantro ( Coriandrum sativum ) by 61%, bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) by 73%, and radish ( Raphanus

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson and Gourav Sharma

competitiveness of sulfonylurea resistant and susceptible prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola ) Weed Technol. 6 303 309 Brosnan, J. Breeden, T. Vargas, G.K. Grier, L. 2015 A biotype of annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) in Tennessee is resistant to inhibitors of ALS

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Dennis C. Odero and Alan L. Wright

critical period for weed control in wide- and narrow-row corn Weed Sci. 52 802 807 Odero, D.C. Wright, A.L. 2013 Phosphorus application influences the critical period of weed control in lettuce Weed Sci. 61 410 414 R Development Core Team 2017 R: A language

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Maren J. Mochizuki, Anusuya Rangarajan, Robin R. Bellinder, Harold M. van Es and Thomas Björkman

yield of the main crop. For example, allelochemicals from rye completely inhibited germination of small-seeded crops such as tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) and lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) in laboratory trials ( Burgos and Talbert, 2000 ) and reduced

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright and Nazim Gruda

, 1982 ; Rau et al., 2006 ; Worrall, 1976 , 1981 ). Gruda et al. (2009) demonstrated that aqueous extracts from 100% PTS reduced the germination rate and radicle growth of tomato and lettuce. Improved growth of geraniums with the additions of