1 Associate Professor. 2 Graduate Research Associate. 3 Graduate Research Assistant. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series TA 23792. We are grateful to DeRuiter Seeds, Columbus, Ohio, for a gift of `Fidelio' cucumber seed. The cost of
Supported by the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NCC-2-301. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under
1 Graduate student. 2 Professor. Appreciation is expressed to James Stuckey and the Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Laboratory, Byron, Ga. for use of trees. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page
Application of a complete nutrient solution (CNS) on apple seedling leaves reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Tween 20 and CaCl2 were components of the CNS which induced gs reduction. Tween 20 alone, however, did not cause stomatal closure, but CaCl2 (24.8 mm) had a consistent, negative effect on gs when applied alone. Application of CaCl2 in combination with one of the other macrocomponents of the CNS (MgSO4, urea, or K2SO4 + KH2PO4) produced less consistent gs reductions indicating that the CaCl2 effect on gs can be modified by the presence of these compounds. Urea, MgSO4, or K2SO4 + KH2PO4 had little effect on gs when applied separately. Application of MgCl2 or KCl, which were not the CNS components, decreased and had no effect on gs, respectively. In addition to gs reduction, CaCl2 sprays reduced net photosynthesis (Pn). The equivalence of intercellular CO2 concentration in sprayed and unsprayed seedlings implied that the Pn drop following CaCl2 sprays resulted from decreased capacity of mesophyll for CO2 fixation and not from reduction in the stomatal aperture. Two possible explanations for stomata closure are discussed: a direct effect of CaCl2 on stomata and an indirect effect of CaCl2 spray through changes in mesophyll CO2 fixation capacity. Reductions in gs and Pn following treatments with different salts were not associated with visible leaf injury.
Abbreviations: A, net CO 2 assimilation; chl, chlorophyll; Ci, intercellular CO 2 concentration; E, transpiration; GI, growth index, GLM, general linear model; gs, stomatal conductance; LT, leaf temperature; RLWC, relative leaf water content; SLW
Leaf gas exchange of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) trees in containers and in an orchard (field-grown trees) was measured over a range of photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF) and ambient CO2 concentrations (Ca ). Net CO2 assimilation (A) and intercellular partial pressure of CO2 (Ci) were determined for all trees in early autumn (noncold-stressed leaves) when minimum daily temperatures were ≥14 °C, and for field-grown trees in winter (cold-stressed leaves) when minimum daily temperatures were ≤10 °C. Cold-stressed trees of both species had lower maximum CO2 assimilation rates (Amax ), light saturation points (QA ), CO2 saturation points (CaSAT ) and quantum yields than leaves of noncold-stressed, field-grown trees. The ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm ) was ≈50% lower for leaves of cold-stressed, field-grown trees than for leaves of nonstressed, field-grown trees, indicating chill-induced photoinhibition of leaves had occurred in winter. The data indicate that chill-induced photoinhibition of A and/or sink limitations caused by root restriction in container-grown trees can limit carbon assimilation in avocado and mango trees.
Fertigation of young Fuji/M26 apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) with different nitrogen concentrations by using a modified Hoagland solution for 6 weeks resulted in a wide range of leaf nitrogen content in recently expanded leaves (from 0.9 to 4.4 g·m–2). Net photosynthesis at ambient CO2, carboxylation efficiency, and CO2-saturated photosynthesis of recently expanded leaves were closely related to leaf N content expressed on both leaf area and dry weight basis. They all increased almost linearly with increase in leaf N content when leaf N < 2.4 g·m–2, leveled off when leaf N increased further. The relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf N content was similar to that of net photosynthesis with leaf N content, but leaf intercellular CO2 concentration tended to decrease with increase in leaf N content, indicating non-stomatal limitation in leaves with low N content. Photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency was high when leaf N < 2.4 g·m–2, but decreased with further increase in leaf N content. Due to the correlation between leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content, photosynthesis was also associated with leaf P content, but to a lesser extent.
Own-rooted one-year-old `Concord' grapevines were fertigated twice weekly for 11 weeks with 1, 10, 20, 50, OR 100 μmol iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid in a complete nutrient solution. As Fe supply increased, leaf total Fe content did not change, whereas active Fe (extracted by 2, 2'-dipyridyl) and total chlorophyll content increased curvilinearly. CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance increased curvilinearly with increasing active Fe, whereas intercellular CO2 concentrations decreased linearly. Activities of key Calvin cycle enzymes, Rubisco, NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoribulokinase, stromal fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and a key enzyme in sucrose synthesis, cytosolic FBPase, all increased linearly with increasing active Fe. No difference was found in the activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and sucrose phosphate synthase of leaves between the lowest and the highest treatments, whereas slightly lower activities were observed in the middle Fe treatments. Content of 3-phosphoglycerate increased curvilinearly with increased active Fe, whereas glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate did not change. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, and total non-structural carbohydrates at both dusk and pre-dawn increased with increasing active Fe. Carbon export from starch breakdown during the night, calculated as the difference between dusk and predawn levels, increased as active Fe increased. In conclusion, Fe limitation reduces the activities of Rubisco and other photosynthetic enzymes, and hence CO2 assimilation capacity. Fe-deficient grapevines have lower concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates in source leaves, and therefore, are source limited.
1 Research assistant. 2 Researcher. This investigation was supported by research grants from the Brazilian Scientific and Technological Council (CNPq). We are indebted to Linda Styer Caldas and Washington L.C. Silva for their critical reading of the
One-year-old grapevines (Vitis labrusca L. `Concord') were supplied twice weekly for 5 weeks with 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mm nitrogen (N) in a modified Hoagland's solution to generate a wide range of leaf N status. Both light-saturated CO2 assimilation at ambient CO2 and at saturating CO2 increased curvilinearly as leaf N increased. Although stomatal conductance showed a similar response to leaf N as CO2 assimilation, calculated intercellular CO2 concentrations decreased. On a leaf area basis, activities of key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoribulokinase (PRK), and key enzymes in sucrose and starch synthesis, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), increased linearly with increasing leaf N content. When expressed on a leaf N basis, activities of the Calvin cycle enzymes increased with increasing leaf N, whereas activities of FBPase, SPS, and AGPase did not show significant change. As leaf N increased, concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), and 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) increased curvilinearly. The ratio of G6P/F6P remained unchanged over the leaf N range except for a significant drop at the lowest leaf N. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at dusk increased linearly with increasing leaf N, and there was no difference between predawn and dusk measurements. As leaf N increased, starch concentration increased linearly at dusk, but decreased linearly at predawn. The calculated carbon export from starch degradation during the night increased with increasing leaf N. These results showed that 1) grapes leaves accumulated less soluble carbohydrates under N-limitation; 2) the elevated starch level in low N leaves at predawn was the result of the reduced carbon export from starch degradation during the night; and 3) the reduced capacity of CO2 assimilation in low N leaves was caused by the coordinated decreases in the activities of key enzymes involved in CO2 assimilation as a result of direct N limitation, not by the indirect feedback repression of CO2 assimilation via sugar accumulation.