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David A. Shaw

Achieving adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) practices by professional landscape managers is a common goal of university research and extension personnel, governmental and regulatory agencies, industry, and the public. IPM is developed and promoted through cooperation of university, state, and industry groups in research and educational programs. Publications and educational events are major means of promoting IPM to landscape professionals. While large theater-style seminars may provide the advantage of reaching as many as 500 people at one time, landscape clientele have shown favor for the smallgroup, hands-on type of seminar for application technology and IPM methodologies. The impact of research and educational programs on IPM adoption tends to be variable, depending on the pest, the potential for effective control, the control practices to be undertaken, and economic consequences. Adoption of several biological control programs has been indicated. The pesticide-use data collected from 1992 to 1994 indicate trends in reduced use of some pesticides and shifts to less toxic materials. Unfortunately, these data do not account for variability in pest activity from year to year, and not all pesticide applicators are reporting. Pressure from the public to control pests while minimizing the use of pesticides also indicates adoption of IPM. Additional evaluations are necessary to assess adoption of current and future IPM programs.

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James W. Rushing, Wilton P. Cook and Larry Spell

Water analyses from six commercial tomato packinghouse dump tanks in South Carolina revealed that metal and pesticide residues accumulate in the dump-tank water during daily operation. The amount that accumulated varied widely as follows: Asana (esfenvalerate), 0.3 to 13.8 ppb; Bravo (chlorothalonil), 0.1 to 2.7 ppm; copper, 2.0 to 7.3 ppm; and manganese, 0.1 to 2.5 ppm. Contamination appeared to be lowest when growers implemented integrated pest management (IPM) during production. In a subsequent controlled study, tomatoes were produced under the following pest-management practices: IPM protocol with pesticide applications based on scouting reports, modified IPM with one arbitrary pesticide application at bloom, and weekly pesticide application regardless of pest pressure. In a small-scale dump tank simulating commercial packinghouse operation, the water used for tomatoes that were produced with a weekly spray schedule had about 2 to 10 times the amount of pesticide and metal residues found in the water used for tomatoes grown under IPM protocol. Modified IPM protocol resulted in intermediate levels of residues. These results confirm that IPM field practices can reduce residues in tomato packinghouse wastewater.

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Mary Lamberts and Adrian Hunsberger

When Master Gardeners first begin a training class, their preconceived notions about concepts such as IPM, pests and pest management are usually very similar to those of the general gardening public. Master Gardeners interact extensively with home owners and are often either the first or the only person from an Extension office with whom an individual speaks. We designated part of their initial training to a module aimed at getting them to understand basic concepts about IPM, pests and pest management. Slides were used to review the different types of pests/pesticides and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles that apply to a) insects and related organisms, b) diseases and c) weeds. These were accompanied by very simple guidelines for each pest group, stressing that pesticides should not automatically be the home owner's first choice. The pesticide label reading portion of this module started with basic information about pesticide labels themselves. From there, Master Gardener trainees were led through an exercise where they had to find specific information on various labels: Sevin, RoundUp, Daconil 2787, Brush-B-Gon, Phyton 27, Dipel, and Amdro. For fruit and vegetable use, they had to find preharvest intervals and any restrictions on planting. For all products, they looked for rates, timing, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)—if listed, and noted label variations. Pre-training scores averaged 60% while post-training scores were 90% or higher.

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James W. Rushing, Wilton P. Cook and Stanley Schumann

Water analyses from all commercial tomato packinghouse dump tanks in South Carolina in 1989 revealed that heavy metals and pesticides accumulate in the dump tank water throughout the course of daily operation. The amount that accumulated varied widely as follows: esfenvalerate, 0.6 to 13.8 ppb; chlorothalonil, 0.1 to 2.85 ppm; copper, 2.0 to 7.3 ppm; manganese, 0.3 to 2.4 ppm. Contamination was lowest when growers were implementing integrated pest management (IPM) practices during production.

In 1990, tomatoes were grown under the following pest management practices: IPM protocol; modified IPM with more frequent spray; or weekly pesticide application regardless of pest pressure. In a small scale dump tank study the water used for tomatoes on the weekly spray schedule had from 2 to 10 times the amount of pesticide and metal residues found in water used for tomatoes grown under IPM. These results confirm that IPM programs can be effective in reducing residues in tomato packinghouse wastewater.

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Jim Shrefler, Mike Bourne, John Damicone, Jonathan Edelson, S. Pair, Warren Roberts and Merritt Taylor

Geographical dispersion of production hampers watermelon integrated pest management (IPM) information delivery in Oklahoma. Melon Pest Manager (MPM) was created to educate and provide advisory information on IPM. Available at www.lane-ag.org, the site emphasizes information relevant to the area. MPM was conceived as Internet availability grew and was recognized to have potential for enhancing IPM implementation. Survey of producers suggested the value of Web-based information may depend on how easily it can be accessed. MPM was designed to provide easy access to watermelon IPM information. Compared to printed literature, web-based format is easier to revise and suited to presentation of information that applies yearly as well as that which may change frequently. MPM provides general discussion of melon IPM tactics and pest-identification and time sensitive information such as pest advisories and pesticide registration changes. MPM offers opportunity for novel presentation of educational information such as the real-time posting of field demonstrations. An initial challenge was to balance site development, promotion and education. Promotion and education followed placement of watermelon IPM tactic information on MPM but preceded advisory and pest identification. Pest identification links to existing sources are enhanced by material prepared for MPM. Progress is slowed by the need for expert intervention and the availability of images and descriptive information. Education on use of advisory resources (e.g., disease forecasters) is a high priority. However, availability and applicability of such products is dependent on the home site. The original concept envisaged mapping of pest activity using grower, extension agent and expert input. Time demands of other components of the site delay development of this aspect. Pest alerts are posted and distributed to county extension offices.

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Ellen M. Bauske, Geoffrey M. Zehnder, Edward J. Sikora and Joseph Kemble

Multidisciplinary integrated pest management (IPM) teams from seven states in the southeastern United States (Alabama, North Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee) met to develop standards for adopting IPM in fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) production. Teams were composed of growers, private consultants, extension personnel, and faculty. IPM practices available for use on tomatoes in the southeastern United States were identified and a survey to assess the current level of adoption of IPM practices was developed. The survey also allowed growers to identify insect, disease, and production problems; beneficial technology and research developments; and other information relevant to IPM adoption. In northern Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and South Carolina, IPM adoption by tomato growers was classified as medium or high on >75% of the fresh-market tomato acreage surveyed. It appears these states may have met the federal mandate for IPM adoption. Tomato producers listed early blight, late blight, bacterial spot, bacterial speck, and bacterial wilt as the main disease problems; tomato fruit worm, thrips, and aphids as the primary insect problems; and poor weather conditions, government regulation, and labor as their primary production problems. Twenty-six percent of the producers throughout the region felt that the development of insect- and disease-resistant varieties would be most helpful to increase production.

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Joyce G. Latimer, Reuben B. Beverly, Carol D. Robacker, Orville M. Lindstrom, S. Kristine Braman, Ronald D. Oetting, Denise L. Olson, Paul A. Thomas, Jerry T. Walker, Beverly Sparks, John M. Ruter, Wojciech Florkowski, Melvin P. Garber and William G. Hudson

Optimizing growing conditions and, thereby, plant growth reduces the susceptibility of plants to many disease and insect pest problems. Educating lawn or landscape management professionals and homeowners about plant health management reduces the need for chemical intervention. Pesticides combined with N and P fertilizers contribute to water pollution problems in urban areas; thus, it is important to manage the amount, timing, and placement of chemicals and fertilizers. To educate consumers applying pesticides and fertilizers in residential gardens, we must educate the sales representatives and others who interact most closely with consumers. Evidence suggests that knowledge about the effects of chemicals is limited and that warning labels are not read or are ignored. Integrated pest management (IPM) offers alternatives to conventional chemical treatments, but such methods are not used commonly because of their relatively high cost and their uncertain impact on pests. Pest detection methods and using pest-resistant plants in landscapes are simple and, in many cases, readily available approaches to reducing the dependence on chemical use. Research on effective, low-cost IPM methods is essential if chemical use in landscape management is to decrease. Current impediments to reducing the pollution potential of chemicals used in the landscape include the limited number of easily implemented, reliable, and cost-effective alternative pest control methods; underfunding of research on development of alternative pest control measures; limited knowledge of commercial operators, chemical and nursery sales representatives, landscape architects, and the general public concerning available alternatives; reluctance of the nursery industry to produce, and of the landscape architects to specify the use of, pest-resistant plant materials; lack of economic or regulatory incentive for professionals to implement alternatives; inadequate funding for education on the benefits of decreased chemical use; and the necessity of changing consumer definition of unacceptable plant damage. We need to teach homeowners and professionals how to manage irrigation to optimize plant growth; use sound IPM practices for reducing disease, weed, and insect problems; and minimize pollution hazards from fertilizers and pesticides.

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William E. Klingeman, David B. Eastwood, John R. Brooker, Charles R. Hall, Bridget K. Behe and Patricia R. Knight

A survey was administered to assess plant characteristics that consumers consider important when selecting landscape plants for purchase. Visitors to home and garden shows in Knoxville and Nashville, Tenn.; Detroit, Mich.; and Jackson, Miss., completed 610 questionnaires. Respondents also indicated their familiarity with integrated pest management (IPM) concepts, pest control philosophy, recognition of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) pests and diseases, including dogwood powdery mildew (Microsphaera pulchra), and willingness-to-pay a price differential for a powdery-mildew-resistant flowering dogwood. Fewer than half of the respondents in any city indicated familiarity with IPM, although they were familiar with organic farming and pest scouting components of an IPM program. Willingness-to-pay was relatively consistent across all four locations. The uniformity of average tree premiums, which ranged from $11.87 in Jackson to $16.38 in Detroit, supports the proposition that customers are willing to pay a substantially higher price for a landscape tree that will maintain a healthier appearance without the use of chemical sprays. Factors affecting consumer demand for landscape nursery products and services can be paired with consumer awareness of IPM terminology and practices to create an effective market strategy for newly developed powdery-mildew-resistant dogwood cultivars.

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S.K. Braman, J.G. Latimer and C.D. Robacker

Questionnaires on pesticide use and other aspects of integrated pest management (IPM) were mailed to 1678 lawn care and landscape maintenance firms in the 20 county metropolitan Atlanta area. The survey return rate adjusted for nonapplicable addresses and undeliverable mailings was 25.4%, yielding a total of 350 usable surveys. Responding lawn care and landscape maintenance professionals purchased a total active ingredient of 250,527 lb (93,447 kg) of herbicide, 35,416 lb (13,210 kg) of insecticide and 10,367 lb (3,867 kg) of fungicide during 1993. Most insecticides and fungicides were applied during June, July, and August. About one-third of herbicides were applied during March to May, one-third during June to August, and one-third during September to February. Key pests and plants were identified by survey respondents. Opportunities and impediments to implementation of IPM in the landscape as reported by respondents are discussed.

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Amy Fulcher, Dava Hayden and Winston Dunwell

The objectives of Kentucky's Sustainable Nursery Production Practices Extension Program are for 1) the Kentucky nursery industry to continue sustained growth and 2) Kentucky growers to produce high quality plants, efficiently use pesticides, be stewards of their land and Kentucky's environment. Sustainable Nursery Program Components are 1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Nursery Scouting, Scout Training and Scouting Education for growers, Extension workers, and students; 2) Best Management Practice (BMP) Workshops: BMP VI: Disease Demolition Workshop; 3) Production Practice Demonstration: Pruning Training, Pesticide Handling, and Safety and Environmental Stewartship. 4.) Research: Pruning protocols; Media and media amendments; Precision Fertilization and Irrigation. The Kentucky Nursery Crops Scouting Program scouting guidelines were developed and contained: a weekly scouting/trapping guide; a listing of which pests to look for and on what host plants, and a detailed methodology of precisely how to look for the pest, its damage, and how to record this information such that comparisons could be made across nurseries and seasons.