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Methyl bromide has been the foundation of chemical weed control in strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in California for over 40 years. The impending phaseout of methyl bromide may leave strawberry producers dependent on less efficacious alternative fumigants for weed control. The use of herbicides to supplement fumigants is a potential weed control strategy for strawberry. A 2-year field study was conducted in California to evaluate 10 herbicides as possible supplements for methyl bromide alternative fumigants. Herbicides were applied immediately after transplanting (immediate posttransplant), and 3 weeks after transplanting (delayed posttransplant). Napropamide applied immediate posttransplant was included as a commercial standard. Immediate posttransplant treatments that were safe in strawberry include carfentrazone at 0.075 and 0.15 lb/acre (0.084 and 0.168 kg·ha-1), flumioxazin at 0.063 lb/acre (0.071 kg·ha-1) and sulfentrazone at 0.175 and 0.25 lb/acre (0.196 and 0.28 kg·ha-1). Triflusulfuron at 0.016 lb/acre (0.017 kg·ha-1) was the only delayed posttransplant treatment with acceptable selectivity. Among the selective herbicides applied immediate posttransplant, flumioxazin and napropamide provided the most consistent control of bur clover (Medicago polymorpha) and shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Triflusulfuron applied delayed posttransplant did not significantly reduce bur clover densities, but did reduce shepherd's purse densities.

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Classic; PBI-Gordon Corp., Shawnee, KS, USA) or quinclorac (Drive 75 DF; BASF Corp., Florham Park, NJ, USA) ( McFadden et al. 2022 ). However, cover was reduced by 6% to 32% at 6 weeks after planting by seeding into plots treated with halosulfuron

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control of purple nutsedge ( Clewis et al., 2008 ; Obrigawitch et al., 1980 ; Syngenta Crop Protection, 2007a ). Halosulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide, provides excellent soil and foliar control of purple nutsedge and yellow nutsedge ( Grichar et al

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Protection, LLC) at 0.14 kg⋅ha –1 a.i., clopyralid (Lontrel; Corteva Agriscience, Wilmington, DE, USA) at 0.29 kg⋅ha –1 a.i., bentazon (Basagran; BASF Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC, USA) at 0.56 kg⋅ha –1 a.i., halosulfuron (Sedgehammer; Gowan Company

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yellow nutsedge suppression when pyroxasulfone was applied at 89 g⋅ha –1 a.i.; however, they reported significant levels of injury when sprayed over broccoli ‘Emerald Crown’ in Charleston, SC. Halosulfuron is a Weed Science Society of America group 2

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several PRE herbicides including clomazone + ethalfluralin, halosulfuron-methyl, and s-metolachlor will provide better weed control in NT compared with many older cucurbit herbicides, the use of effective postemergence herbicides for control of both grass

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A field study was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to evaluate various herbicides (ethafluralin & clomazone, halosulfuron, and ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron) with or without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop in no-tillage `Daytona' cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) production. All herbicides were applied preplant prior to cucumber transplanting, and no injury or stunting to cucumber was observed with any of the treatments evaluated at any time during the two growing seasons. Winter rye provided a significant advantage for weed control compared to the no cover crop production system. The combination of ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron provided the greatest control of smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. Ex Schweig) Schreb. Ex Muhl.] and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Ethafluralin & clomazone provided little redroot pig-weed control, while halosulfuron alone provided no control of smooth crabgrass. Winter rye enhanced cucumber yields in 2002 (drought conditions), while in 2003 (sufficient moisture and cooler soil temperatures), winter rye tended to suppress yields. During drought conditions (2002), treatments with ethafluralin & clomazone and ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron produced similar yields. However, in 2003, treatments with ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron produced greater yields than treatments with ethafluralin & clomazone. Overall, the handweed treatment provided the greatest yields, while the non-treated and halosulfuron only treatment provided the lowest yields. Winter rye will provide some additional weed control in a no-tillage vegetable production system, but may also provide negative effects by suppressing crop yield depending on seasonal growing conditions.

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. Meanwhile, Johnston and Henry (2016 ) synchronized herbicide applications of thiencarbazone + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron (TFH) with fall movement of carbohydrates to rhizome tissue before the onset of dormancy to maximize long-term dallisgrass control

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Trials were conducted at Plymouth, NC in 2004 and 2005 to determine the effect of halosulfuron on the yield and grade of white-skinned and red-skinned Irish potatoes when used in combination with different infurrow insecticides. Factors for the factorial design used included potato variety, halosulfuron timing, halosulfuron rate, and insecticide. In-furrow insecticides included imidacloprid. aldicarb, and phorate at 30.3, 293, and 233 g ai/1000 m of row, respectively. Halosulfuron was applied at 26.3 or 52.6 g ai/ha preemergence (PRE), postemergence, over the top (POST), or postdirected (P-DIR) to the potatoes. Preemergence applications of halosulfuron were made after last hilling of the bed, POST applications were made at early flowering, and P-DIR sprays were applied at late flowering. Crop injury was evaluated visually at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment (WAT). Potatoes were dug and graded at maturity. Data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with means separated using Fisher's protected LSD (p = 0.05). No interaction between insecticides and halosulfuron were observed. However, some yield differences were seen due to halosulfuron alone. Minimal (<10%) injury was seen with PRE and P-DIR applications. Substantial injury was only seen at 2 WAT, and only from POST treatments. At this timing, halosulfuron applied at the low rate injured potato 14-19% across the insecticides, while the high rate caused significantly higher injury (23% to 24%). Injury from the POST timing did affect yield. Higher levels of smaller potatoes (USDA Grade #1) were found in the POST treatments, when pooled over years, varieties and rates. This indicates that tuber development may have been delayed due to foliar injury. This is supported by the lower levels of USDA Grade #3 potatoes from POST applications compared to other timings. When pooled across years, varieties, and rates, the lowest total yields were with the POST timing.

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through Fall 2002 to compare fraser fir injury and weed control following fall applications of herbicides. Treatments were 0.38 lb/acre flumioxazin, 0.21 lb/acre halosulfuron, 1 lb/acre isoxaben, 1 lb/acre oxyfluorfen, 2 lb/acre simazine, and 0.5 lb

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