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yield of CVS fruit, to increase net income and sustain this commodity-based industry ( Atucha et al., 2013 ; Lovatt, 2013 ; Morales-Payan and Candelas, 2013 ; Sukamto et al., 2014 ). Despite problems of low yield, small fruit size, and alternate

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often found in wild species, along with undesirable fruit attributes like a low level of sugar, high levels of malic acid, undesirable flavors, and small size ( Moing et al., 2003 ). Considering the complexity of breeding an improved peach cultivar that

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sections with low blossom density nonthinned. Three years of research on chemical thinners ( Baugher et al., 2008 ) demonstrated that while the treatments generally increased fruit size, they were inconsistent in reducing follow-up hand thinning requirement

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, sucrose accumulation has been demonstrated to occur in response to cellular enlargement if cell size is increased by auxin treatment during early fruit development ( Kano, 2002 ) as well as in response to heating fruits ( Kano, 2006 ). Conversely, sucrose

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fruit size of ‘Bartlett’ ( Elfving et al., 2003b ; Sugar et al., 2004 ) resulted in the removal of pear from the label. ‘D’Anjou’ trees, on the contrary, did not exhibit notable, negative responses to P-Ca with respect to fruit growth, return bloom, or

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Tomato fruits showed diurnal fluctuations in size in addition to long-term irreversible enlargement. Diurnal fluctuations were highly related to the stage of fruit development. In all stages, the maximum relative growth rate occurred in the morning and the minimum RGR at midday. Midday depression of RGR became more severe as fruits developed. In young fruits, RGR was nearly constant over the day. A small depression in growth was observed only at midday. In more developed fruits, RGR was positive during the first half of the day, followed by near zero values in the afternoon, and a. recovery in early night. In mature fruits, overall fruit growth was minimum and RGR was positive only in the morning. Fruit shrinkage was often seen at midday in mature fruits.

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shoot lengths (in terms of yield and fruit size) should be determined and strategies devised to maximize the number of these shoots on trees on an annual basis. It is therefore important to study the phenological characteristics of a cultivar to

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Abstract

Three blueberry progenies from crosses of large-fruited X large-fruited parents were significantly larger in fruit size than 3 progenies from crosses of large-fruited X small-fruited parents. Mean fruit sizes of the 3 large-fruited X small-fruited populations were equal to the fruit size of the smaller fruited parents in each cross, indicating that small fruit size is a dominant character. Large fruit size is not linked with low yield.

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Fruit development in apple cultivars varying in their ultimate fruit size was analyzed using cytology, flow cytometry (FCM), and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Fruit size variation across cultivars was largely explained by variation in cell number. The cell division phase lasted for less than 30 days in all varieties, less than previously believed. A distinct overlap between the cell division and cell expansion phases was present. Analysis of the relative cell production rate (rCPR) showed a major peak about 10 days after full bloom (DAFB) after which it declined. Comparison of the rCPR across varieties suggested distinct patterns of cell production with `Gala' having a low but sustained rCPR, `Pixy Crunch' a short but high rCPR, and `Golden Delicious' having a high and sustained rCPR. FCM analysis also showed similar patterns with a peak in the proportion of dividing cells about 10 DAFB followed by a decline. To further understand regulation of cell number, four cell cycle related genes were cloned from `Gala'. Cyclin Dependent Kinase B (CDK B) and Cyclin B were found to be highly cell division phase specific in their expression. Analysis of gene expression by semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated peak expression of these two genes at 5-10 DAFB, consistent with the peaks in rCPR and proportion of dividing cells. Comparison of gene expression across the varieties showed higher peak expression of the above genes in the larger-fruited `Golden Delicious' than in the smaller-fruited `Gala.' This study provides novel insight into the regulation of fruit development in apple and also suggests a role for the cell cycle genes in fruit size regulation.

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Abstract

Pooled data from several cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (V. ashei Reade) showed a highly significant correlation between fruit size and developed seed content although there were exceptions of individual cultivars means. Fruit size and seed no. decreased with progressively later harvests in all cultivars. Seed size differed among the various cultivars but was not related to fruit size. The % of total seeds that developed varied among cultivars and was correlated with fruit size.

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