the center, north, and west of the country, respectively. Essential oil composition. The composition of each essential oil of the 31 Iranian A. millefolium accessions was analyzed by GC-MS ( Table 3 ). A total number of 50 compounds were identified
Mostafa Farajpour, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Amin Baghizadeh and Mostafa Aalifar
Chen Jiang, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Guoying Ma and Christopher Gunter
. 121 313 327 Simić, A. Soković, M.D. Ristić, M. Grujić-Jovanović, S. Vukojević, J. Marin, P.D. 2004 The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities Phytother. Res. 18 713 717 Tripathi, P. Dubey, N.K. Shukla, A
Kelly M. Bowes and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at two sites in Nova Scotia during 2001 and 2002 to assess the potential to grow fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) as an essential oil crop in the Maritime region of Canada. Three cultivars—`Shumen', `Berfena', and `Sweet Fennel'—and two seeding dates—24 May and 8 June—were evaluated. Essential oil yields and composition were determined and compared to commercially available fennel essential oil from the U.S. The highest herbage yields were produced by `Shumen' from the earlier seeding date. Essential oil content and yields were lowest in `Sweet Fennel' and highest in `Shumen'. The major component of the essential oil was anethole, 47% to 80.2%. Other major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol, fenchone, α-phellandrene, α-pinene, ortho cymene, β-phellandrene, fenchyl acetate, β-pinene, and apiole. The essential oil composition was unique to each cultivar. The highest methyl chavicol content was in `Shumen', while the highest concentration of phellandrene, fenchyl acetate and apiole were detected in `Sweet Fennel' oil. Fenchone, ortho cymene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-pinene were the highest in `Berfena'. The composition of the oil was similar to the commercially purchased oil and met industry requirements of oil composition. The results suggest there is potential to grow fennel as an essential oil crop in Nova Scotia.
Natasha Kovacheva, Krasimir Rusanov, Valtcho Jeliazkov (Zheljazkov) and Nedko Nedkov
Bulgaria is famous for its 330-year-old-tradition in rose oil production, which is based on the Kazanluk rose (Rosa damascena Mill. f. trigintipetala Dieck.). The Bulgarian rose oil (otto) is recognized as the ultimate rose oil. For successful selection and breeding work of oil-bearing roses, information is needed on the variation of morphological and phenological characteristics and essential oil composition of locally available genotypes. We estimated the correlation coefficients between yields and morphological characteristics of 15 genotypes of Bulgarian oil-bearing rose. It was found that rose yields depended mostly on the number of flowers, the number of flower branches per bush, and the weight of individual flowers (r = 0.99, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively). Also, we established correlations between the concentrations of various essential oil constituents of the Bulgarian rose oil. Generally, higher concentration of citronellol + nerol was associated with lower concentration of geraniol and stereo-terpens (r = –0.76 and –0.59, respectively). Also, higher concentration of citronellol + nerol was positively correlated to increased concentration of terpene aldehydes (r = 0.63) and esters (r = 0.48). The geraniol concentration was positively correlated to stearoptenes (r = 0.57). Both morphological characteristics and essential oil constituents should be used for further selection of high-yielding cultivars with desirable essential oil composition.
The essential oil constituent of Rosemary harvested in different times and grown in different introduction regions were analyzed with GC method and compared in this study. The composition of the essential oil in different harvest times were almost similar, the content of main constituents fluctuated regularly. Compared with main production countries of Rosemary, the composition of the essential oil in different introduction regions of our country have characteristics of their own, with high content of &-Pirene in Beijing, rich in Comphor and relatively high in Bonneol and Bonaryl acetate in Nanjing and with equally abundant &-Pirene and 1, 8-cineole in Kunming.
Roemarol, Cornosal and Rosmadial are separated from Residues of disfitled shoot and leaves of Rosemary, and are identified with MS and'H-NMR.
B.H. Alkire and J.E. Simon
An experimental steam distillation unit has been designed, built, and tested for the extraction of essential oils from peppermint and spearmint. The unit, using a 130-gal (510-liter) distillation tank, is intermediate in size between laboratory-scale extractors and commercial-sized distilleries, yet provides oil in sufficient quantity for industrial evaluation. The entire apparatus-a diesel-fuel-fired boiler, extraction vessel, condenser, and oil collector-is trailer-mounted, making it transportable to commercial farms or research stations. Percentage yields of oil per dry weight from the unit were slightly less than from laboratory hydrodistillations, but oil quality and terpene composition were similar.
J.A. Plummer, J. Wann, J.A. Considine and Z. Spadek
Boronia megastigma is cultivated or picked from natural stands in Western Australia for the production of essential oil. Boronia absolute is extracted from the highly perfumed flowers. It is currently valued at between US$4000 and US$7000 per kilogram, and world consumption for perfumery is about 1 tonne. The variation in essential oil composition within and between populations has indicated considerable variation in oil components. Some individuals have high β-ionone and low levels of pinenes. Principle components analysis indicated that the content of β-ionone and dodecyl acetate were tightly linked, as were the monoterpenes, α-pinene, β-pinene, and, to a lesser extent, limonene. Separate linkages between the desirable oil components (β-ionone and dodecyl acetate) and the undesirable components (α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene) will facilitate selection of plants to be used in oil production.
Shahrokh Khanizadeh and Andre Bédanger
Leaves of three strawberry cultivars (Bounty', `Honeoye', and `Kent') were collected at random from plants growing in an experimental trial at the Agriculture Canada, Research Station farm at Lavaltrie, Quebec. Steam-distillation was carried out on 300g of leaves in 3L of distilled water in a 5L flask. The essential oils were analyscd with a Varian 6000 gas chromatogmph. Thirty-seven compounds were detected of which sixteen were identified. The major components were linalool and nonanal. Many of the other constituents were aliphatic in nature. Differences in oil composition among the three cultivars were observed. Essential oil composition might therefore be used as a selection criteria for insect or disease resistance. Their effect upon mites will be assayed in future studies by testing them as sex, food, or oviposition lures.
Kelly M. Bowes and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted during the summers of 2001 and 2002 in two locations in Nova Scotia to identify the effect of cultivar, transplanting date, and drying (air-drying and freeze-drying) on basil (Ocimum basilicum `Mesten' and `Italian Broadleaf', and O. sanctum `Local') productivity and oil quality in Nova Scotia and to identify the potential of growing basil as a cash crop in this region. Results suggested that all of the tested cultivars of basil grown in Nova Scotia had acceptable yields and composition for the international commercial market. Greater yields (ranging from 3.6 to 19.8 t·ha-1) were achieved from `Mesten' and `Italian Broadleaf' by earlier transplanting. `Local' had a lower oil content compared to the other cultivars. Linalool was the main component of `Mesten' oil, linalool and methyl chavicol were the main components of `Italian Broadleaf' oil, while elemene and α-humulene were the main components of `Local' oil. Both air-drying and freeze-drying were found to alter the composition of the essential oil from O. sanctum and O. basilicum.
Liangli Yu, Mario Morales and James E. Simon
Hydro-distilled essential oils from fresh and dry leaves and fresh and dry flowers of `Sweet Dani', a new ornamental lemon basil (Ocimum basilicum) cultivar with potential as a source of natural citral, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil contents were 0.18%, 0.19%, 0.30%, 0.28% w/w on a fresh weight basis of fresh and dry leaves, and fresh and dry flowers, respectively. Oils from leaves and flowers differed significantly in content and composition. The major constituents in dry leaf oil were neral 21.8% and geranial 33.5%. The major constituents in dry flower oil included: nerol 11.5%, neral 12.9%, geraniol 7.6%, and geranial 17.7%. Nerol (1.6%), and geraniol (0.4%) were very low in dry leaf oil. As citral is a combination of neral and geranial, the relative leaf and flower citral content is 55.3% and 30.6% of the total oil, respectively. Linalool and octanol were detected in flower oils only.