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Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is a vegetable crop of great economic importance in the southwestern United States. Major states producing chile pepper (nonbell type) are New Mexico, California, Texas, and Arizona. In 2006, chile pepper

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in onion ( Allium cepa ), but it delayed the flowering of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) ( Shannon and Grieve, 1998 ). Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) is an important commercial crop having a large planting area of about 3500 ha in Southwestern

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., 2021 ), tomato ( S. lycopersicum L.) (Figàs et al., 2018), and chile pepper ( Ortiz et al., 2010 ). Extensive diversity in fruit-related traits has been observed in different pepper-growing regions of the world. Nankar et al. (2020c ) reported

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, reduce soil erosion, increase water infiltration, decrease nutrient loss by leaching, attract beneficial insects, suppress weeds, and/or suppress soilborne pathogens ( Magdoff and Van Es, 2009 ). In New Mexico, where chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L

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of heirloom cultivars. Origin Dr. Roy Harper released the New Mexican-type chile pepper cultivar, Sandia A, in 1956 ( Coon et al., 2008 ). In 1967 the New Mexico Crop Improvement Association met and decided to change the name to ‘Sandia’ ( Harper and

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Chile pepper (Capsicum annum) production in the southwest can be impacted by many factors. In particular, factors that alter root growth and development can be critical to pepper productivity. Several factors can cause less-than-optimal taproot formation, including irrigation practices, planting method (seeds vs. transplants), climactic conditions, and competition from weed species for limiting resources. The goals of this research were to quantify the root development of chile peppers established from either seeds or transplants under furrow and drip irrigation. Research was conducted in 2005 at Artesia Plant Science Research Center in Artesia, N.M., using a state-of-the-art drip irrigation system. Differences in root development between both irrigation types and planting methods were measured using of the mini-rhizotron image capturing system. Measurements occurred at a weekly basis to document location, root length density, and pattern of root formation. At the time of harvest, yield and fruit quality were evaluated. Direct-seeded chile plants yielded more fruits than transplanted chile under both irrigation regimes. Patterns of root development differed over time for direct-seeded vs. transplanted and furrow vs. drip-irrigated chile peppers. Planting and irrigation method affected root growth differently at various points in the season. These data can aid in the optimization of management strategies for specific production practices.

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Abstract

Experiments were conducted in 1979 and 1980 to evaluate anticrustant (H3PO4 and Nalco 2190) effects on stand establishment, growth, and yield of chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). While plant stands and fruit yield were not increased by applying H3PO4 over the seeded row in 1979, hypocotyl stress of germinants was reduced. Stands and P content in 1980 were not increased by H3PO4 or Nalco 2190 treatments 1 month after emergence, but plant height was increased significantly by both anticrustants. Yields of fresh green chile peppers were not enhanced by treatments. While germinant stress could be reduced by using anticrustants, it was concluded that a factor other than crusting was limiting chile seedling growth in southern New Mexico.

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Abstract

The natural cross-pollination (NCP) rate was determined for chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) utilizing isozyme variation in tester lines. Experiments were conducted over a 2 year period in a total of 5 commercial fields in southern New Mexico. The average NCP for both years was 42% with the rate for individual plants as high as 91%. Such high rates of cross-pollination indicate the need for the strictest precautions in the production of commercial seed, and in the design and execution of breeding procedures.

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Seven types of chile peppers were tested for differences in susceptibility to postharvest chilling injury (CI). Cherry, cubanelle, Hungarian wax (HW), poblano, serrano, and both mature-green and full-color (red) jalapeño fruit were stored at 2.5, 7, and 15 °C for 0 to 30 days. External C2H4 production at 12 and 24 hours after removal from storage and internal C2H4 concentration at 24 hours were measured. There was no significant difference in C2H4 production after the first 12 hours, but serrano produced significantly less C2H4 than the other types during the second 12 hours. Among the cultivars there were differences in the amounts of internal C2H4 measured: HW had the highest levels measured, and serrano had undetectable levels. CI has been observed on bell and some chile pepper cultivars as small black pits, and the recommended nonchilling storage temperature is 7 °C for all peppers. In this study, scald (a surface browning) was observed on HW and cubanelle fruit in addition to pitting, which occurred on all the cultivars. Susceptibility to chilling varied among pepper types in this study. HW peppers were the most susceptible, manifesting scald after 4 days at 2.5 °C and scald and pits after 16 days at 7 °C. Serrano fruit were the most resistant to CI, only pitting after 23 days at 2.5 °C, and having no symptoms after storage at 7 °C for 30 days. Cherry and poblano peppers developed pits after 8 days at 2.5 °C. Both green and red jalapeños pitted after 12 days at 2.5 °C, and cubanelles had scald after 16 days at 2.5 °C. Poblano fruit had large, deep pits after 8 days at 7 °C, cherry peppers pitted after 12 days, and both green and red jalapeño fruit pitted after 16 days at 7 °C. Both pits and scald were observed on cubanelle fruit after 23 days at 7 °C. Recommendations for storage of peppers should be expanded to accommodate differences among cultivars.

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New Mexico State University has a long history of chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) improvement. The chile pepper improvement program began in 1888 with Dr. Fabian Garcia, who released the first New Mexican pod type. Today, all New Mexican pod

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