seedlings can be obtained. Tetraploid blueberry cultivars have been produced by interspecific crosses in section Cyanococcus , followed by recurrent selection for desirable horticultural characteristics and clonal propagation of the best seedlings ( Coville
comparison purposes among years and development of relevant nutrient sufficiency levels. Cultivars of blackberry ( Fernandez et al., 2015 ; Harkins et al., 2014 ; Strik, 2015 ), raspberry ( John et al., 1976 ) and blueberry ( Eaton and Meehan, 1971 ) have
Two new southern highbush blueberry cultivars, `Dixieblue' and `Gupton', will provide growers with new blueberry cultivars having excellent fruit quality that ripen relatively early in the season, during the profitable early fresh-market window. Berries of `Dixieblue' are light blue, medium in size, and their flat shape makes them most attractive. `Gupton' is very productive and berry quality is also excellent. The performance of these cultivars represent an improvement over most currently available southern highbush blueberry cultivars due to 1) their durability and performance on both upland and sandy soils endemic to the Gulf Coast and 2) consistent production of high quality fruit that will meet the demand for early ripening fresh-market blueberries. The new rabbiteye blueberry cultivar, `DeSoto', represents an improvement over currently available rabbiteye blueberry cultivars for late-season production. `DeSoto' produces medium-to-large fruit having excellent color, flavor, and firmness Plants of `DeSoto' are productive, vigorous but semi-dwarf, upright and spreading. It's semi-dwarf growth habit, which is unique among currently grown rabbiteye blueberries, results in bushes that attain a maximum height of about 2 meters upon maturity, reducing the necessity of top-pruning that is required for all other cultivars. `DeSoto' blooms two to three weeks later than early-to-mid season cultivars such as `Climax' and `Tifblue', providing insurance against late-spring freezes. Similarly, its fruit mature 21 to 14 days or more, respectively after these same cultivars. `DeSoto' will provide niche market blueberry growers with a new cultivar having productivity, plant vigor, fruit quality, and very late ripening period that will extend their marketing season. The new evergreen ornamental blueberry, `Native Blue', is low growing, compact and finely branched with small glaucous leaves, traits that are quite typical of V. darowii. `Native Blue' has beautiful foliage that changes color in different seasons. Mature leaves are darker green while newer growth exhibits a light pinkish hue that changes to a bluish green. Other desirable characteristics of `Native Blue' are its dwarf growth habit, hardy and vigorous growth, and its capacity for a high level of fruit production that serves as an attractant to birds and other wildlife. `Native Blue' will provide southeastern U.S. nurserymen, landscapers, and homeowners with a novel and beautiful new ornamental shrub that will complement plantings of azaleas, camellias, crepe myrtles, etc.
The chemical composition of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) cultivars Blomidon, Cumberland, and Fundy were examined at three stages of fruit maturity, before and after refrigerated storage, in a 2-year study. There were differences (P< 0.001) related to maturity and cultivar in berry fresh weight, percentage dry matter, fruit firmness, percentage soluble solids, titratable acidity, and the concentration of sugar, acids, and anthocyanins. Among the nine organic and phenolic acids measured, seven acids varied among the maturity groups and eight varied among the cultivars. Between the 2 years of study there was a 60% difference in total fruit acid content as well as in the relative amounts of each acid. The 2-year mean profile of lowbush blueberry acids was distinctly different from that recently reported for highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade). The level of certain acids as well as the concentration of anthocyanins increased during cold storage. Estimation of sugar concentration by percentage soluble solids overestimated sugar concentration by 3070. Acid measurement by titration underestimated acid content as measured by HPLC by 61%. Results of this study illustrate the variation in the chemical composition of lowbush blueberry fruit among cultivars, maturities, and seasons, and can be used to compare lowbush blueberries with other Vaccinium species.
summer pruning in southern and northern ( V. corymbosum ) highbush blueberry cultivars. Early summer pruning increased inflorescence bud number in ‘O’Neal’ and ‘Star’ SHB compared with late summer pruning, whereas the nonpruned control had an intermediate
planting to maturity (about 8 years). Differences in the performance of cultivars have been found in organic production of ‘Duke’ and ‘Liberty’ blueberry ( Larco et al., 2013a , 2013b ; Strik, 2016 ; Strik et al., 2016 ) and various blackberry cultivars
The anthocyanin content of ripe berry samples of 11 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosurn L.) varied over a 3-fold range. HPLC separation of individual anthocyanins in blueberry samples revealed 3 distinct anthocyanin patterns. Visible absorption spectra of aqueous berry extracts reflected differences in anthocyanin concentration and pH, the latter especially being evident with the more acidic berries of ‘Coville’ and ‘Elliott’. Tristimulus reflectance measurements made on whole berries correlated with visual assessment of waxy bloom but not with anthocyanin content, anthocyanin pattern, or juice pH. SEM examination revealed 2 different surface structures in samples exhibiting bloom. Tristimulus parameters for blueberry juice were dependent on anthocyanin concentration, pH, and the occurrence of browning, but not on the pattern of individual anthocyanins.
Fruit growth and development of 6 rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) cultivars were measured from bloom date through harvest season. Fruit development was characterized by 3 divisions of growth: an early period of accelerated size increase, a second period with lesser increase in fruit size, and a third period with a greatly accelerated increase in fruit size which continued until fruit was mature. Fruit size in all cultivars was largest at the first harvest and smallest at the last harvest. Cultivar differences were evident in fruit size, fruit development, titratable acidity, and percent soluble solids.
maximum flavor. Shelf life depends on the cultivar, harvest method, and field and storage conditions ( Duan et al., 2011 ; Sargent et al., 2006 ). The respiration rate for blueberry was reported to reach between 2.0–10 mg·kg −1 ·h −1 at 0 °C and 52–87 mg
Blueberries have traditionally been propagated by softwood, semihardwood, or hardwood cuttings. Although plants can be produced at low cost, cuttings from some cultivars have low or very low rooting percentages, particularly when propagated from