Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 344 items for :

  • Ipomoea batatas x
Clear All
Free access

Zhigiang Zhu and Paul G. Thompson

The polymorphisms of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) in sweetpotato and I. trifida were examined. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyze leaf and pollen tissue of parents and progenies of 10 crosses. Analyses revealed that PGI was a dimeric enzyme system controlled by 5 loci. The segregation ratios did not suggest that PGI was a duplicate system and therefore did not indicate hexaploidy. Only 2 loci appeared to be present in I. trifida. No observed band was related to different ploidy levels in I. batatas and I. trifida. No linkage was identified among the loci.

Free access

Chana Phromtong and James O. Garner Jr.

Ten day old potted rooted cutting of sweetpotato genotypes `Travis' and MS 21-1 were exposed for seven days to cold (12°C) or 21°C (control) temperatures. Chemical changes that may accompany tolerance or susceptibility to chilling were monitored. No consistent differences in total fatty acid composition were found between the two genotypes. There was an increase in peroxidase (POD) activity of the crude enzyme extract for MS 21-1, the chilling tolerant genotype, when exposed to 12°C for seven days. No differnces were found in POD activity for `Travis', the chilling sensitive genotype. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CA) activity for crude enzyme extracts did not differ between genotypes and was not influenced by storage temperature.

Free access

M.A. Norton and D.R. LaBonte

Somatic embryogenesis in sweetpotato is highly genotype dependent. Unfortunately, many desirable agronomic varieties do not produce embryos capable of germination when published protocols are followed. Using one responsive and three recalcitrant cultivars, we examined the effect on embryogenesis of auxin, nitrogen, and carbon; explant source; and desiccation. All cultivars formed proembryonic masses on medium supplemented with either 2,4-D or picloram; picloram favored the growth of nonembryogenic callus. Twenty mm each of ammonium and nitrate promoted the best proembryo formation in all cultivars. Ammonium was essential for embryogenesis; replacing ammonium with proline, glutamine, asparagine, glycine, or casein hydrolysate resulted in poor or no proembryo formation. More proembryos formed on medium supplemented with sucrose than with glucose, fructose, or maltose. Leaf discs from the first fully expanded leaf produced more embryos than younger leaves for all cultivars; discs taken from the lamina produced more embryos than discs including portions of the midrib. Proembryos matured and germinated only after at least 3 weeks on medium containing 5% w/v polyethylene glycol 8000, greater than 3.3 mm myo-inositol, and 1 or 10 μm abscisic acid. More whole plants were obtained from the responsive cultivar Jewel than from the recalcitrant genotypes.

Free access

Jyh-Bin Sun, Ray F. Severson, William S. Schlotzhauer and Stanley J. Kays

Thermal degradation of fractions from sweetpotato roots (`Jewel') was conducted with gas chromatographymass spectrometry to identify precursors of critical flavor volatiles. Upon heating (200 C), sweetpotato root material that was insoluble in methanol and methylene chloride produced similar volatile profiles to those from sweetpotatoes baked conventionally. Volatiles derived via thermal degradation of the nonpolar methylene chloride fraction and the polar methanol fraction did not display chromatographic profiles similar to those from conventionally baked sweetpotatoes. Initial reactions in the formation of critical volatiles appear to occur in the methanol and methylene chloride insoluble components. Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone) was found to be one of the critical components making up the characteristic aroma of baked sweetpotatoes. Integration of an analytical technique for the measurement of flavor into sweetpotato breeding programs could potentially facilitate the selection of improved and/or unique flavor types.

Free access

Abesinghe Arambage, James Garner and J.L. Silva

Plasmalemma lipid fatty acid changes due to low temperature (12C) were observed in M521-1 and `Travis', chilling-tolerant and -sensitive, respectively, genotypes. Lipid fatty acid changes found in both genotypes after exposure to chilling included decreased palmitic acid (16:0) and an increased unsaturated: saturated fatty acid ratio. Changes detected only in the tolerant genotype were increased linoleic (18:2), linolenic (18:3) and erucic (22:1). Monogalactosyldiglyceride and phosphatidylglycerol were the only lipids with >50% of their fatty acids unsaturated; therefore, it was concluded that these lipids were involved in the chilling tolerance of M521-1. A reduction in arachidonic (20:4) on phosphatidylinositol from `Travis' exposed to 12C resulted in <50% unsaturation of this lipid. This change could be associated with the chilling sensitive response of `Travis'.

Free access

Nenita V. Desamero and Billy B. Rhodes

Vitrification, a physiological disorder characteristic of in vitro grown plants, was observed in single-node cultures of sweet potato in mannitol-enriched medium during their second year of storage. Vitrified or vitreous sweet potato plantlets were watersoaked, translucent or glassy in appearance, with thick, swollen, leaves and stems, stunted shoot growth and poor root growth. These plantlets were not able to regenerate normal plants when transferred into fresh regeneration medium nor were they able to survive outside culture conditions.

Electron microscopy revealed changes in the ultrastructures of vitrified sweet potato plantlets. Vitrified plants had defective stomatal complex, starch grain-filled chloroplasts, disrupted cell wall, big air spaces (lacunae), high frequency of cell membrane separation from the cell wall, nuclear disintegration, and cytoplasmic disorganization. These changes in the internal structures of vitrified plants were reflected in their abnormal morphology and physiology.

Free access

Victor A. Kahn, C. Stevens, T. Mafolo, C. Bonsi, J.Y. Lu, E.G. Rhoden, M.A. Wilson, M.J.E. Brown, K. Kabwe and Y. Adeyeye

TU-82-155 and `Georgia-Jet' early maturing. `Carver II', TU-1892 and `Rojo-Blanco' late maturing sweetpotato, cultivars were evaluated in the field for 0.20 and 40% vine removal (VR) at 8 wk after transplanting. Parameters measured were: leaf area index (LAI) recovery, net assimilation rate, foliage crop growth rate (FCGR), storage roots crop growth rate (RCGR). alpha a (the mean relative growth rate in dry wt to the mean relative growth rate in leaf area over a time interval) or the partitioning of assimilates, total and marketable yield. A split. splitplot design was used and plants were sampled at 3 and 8 wk following VR. Except for TU-82-155 all cultivars showed significant LAI recovery above the control at 3 and 8 wk after vine removal when 20% of the vines were removed while at the 40% VR, only 'Georgia-Jet'. TU-1892 and 'Carver II' showed significant increases in LAI for the same periods. Net assimilation rate showed significant interactions while FCGR was not significantly affected by either 20 or 40 VR compared to the control at 3 or 8 wk after VR. RCGR was significantly affected by both levels of VR at 3 and 8 wk after VR and surplus assimilates (alpha a) showed significant interactions between cultivars and % VR. Told yield declined for all cultivars irrespective to maturity groups with the sharpest decrease being at the 20% VR. All cultivars except TU-82-155 showed a decrease in marketable yield, the increase in marketable yield of TU-82-155 was due to a lower non-marketable yield.

Free access

Nenita V. Desamero and Billy B. Rhodes

Vitrification, a physiological disorder characteristic of in vitro grown plants, was observed in single-node cultures of sweet potato in mannitol-enriched medium during their second year of storage. Vitrified or vitreous sweet potato plantlets were watersoaked, translucent or glassy in appearance, with thick, swollen, leaves and stems, stunted shoot growth and poor root growth. These plantlets were not able to regenerate normal plants when transferred into fresh regeneration medium nor were they able to survive outside culture conditions.

Electron microscopy revealed changes in the ultrastructures of vitrified sweet potato plantlets. Vitrified plants had defective stomatal complex, starch grain-filled chloroplasts, disrupted cell wall, big air spaces (lacunae), high frequency of cell membrane separation from the cell wall, nuclear disintegration, and cytoplasmic disorganization. These changes in the internal structures of vitrified plants were reflected in their abnormal morphology and physiology.

Free access

Ruth S. Kobayashi, John C. Bouwkamp and Stephen L. Sinden

Use of wild species for in vitro sweetpotato improvement has been limited, in part, by the lack of suitable regeneration systems for these species. Shoot regeneration in 4 closely related species, I. batatas, I. cordatotriloba, I. trifida and I. triloba, were evaluated. Callus was initiated using methods described by Otani and Shimada (1988). Calli were transferred to regeneration media containing 17.75 uM BAP and 0, 1, 10 and 100 uM PCIB. Organogenesis was enhanced by the presence of PCIB. With I. cordatotriloba calli grown on media with 10 uM PCIB, a 2-fold increase in the percentage of calli exhibiting shoot regeneration was observed as compared to calli grown on media with BAP alone. A significant increase in the average number of shoots per callus was also observed. The other species examined appeared to be less sensitive than I. cordatotriloba to the PCIB treatments.

Free access

V. A. Khan, C. Stevens, J. Y. Lu, M. A. Wilson, J. E. Brown, E. G. Rhoden, T. Mafolo and M. K. Kabwe

TU-155 and Georgia-Jet early, TU-1892 and Carver late maturing sweet-potato cultivars. were evaluated in the field to determine the effect of flower removal (FR) would have on marketable storage, root numbers and yield. Other parameters measured were leaf area and numbers, plant fresh and dry weight. Plants were sampled at 57 and 71 days after transplanting (DAT). All flowers were hand removed and the 1st harvest began 45 days DAT for the early and at 60 DAT for the late maturing cultivars. All flower harvests concluded 22 days after 1st harvest began and roots were harvested 120 DAT. There was significant differences among cultivars for total flower production with N-1892 and Georgia-Jet having the highest flower production. FR treatments for N-155 and Georgia-Jet showed significant increases for plant dry weight, leaf area and numbers 71 DAT while Carver and TU-1892 showed no significant differences for the same sample period. Marketable root numbers were not significantly affected by FR but marketable yields for all cultivars were. Overall, the cultivars showed variation both within and among maturity groups in their response to FR treatments, for example N-155 had a 39% compared to 3% increase for Georgia-let while Carver had a 15% increase in marketable yield compared to 5% for TU-1891.