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Gerhard C. Rossouw, Jason P. Smith, Celia Barril, Alain Deloire and Bruno P. Holzapfel

photoassimilation, can cause starch redistribution from the roots during berry sugar accumulation ( Candolfi-Vasconcelos et al., 1994 ), while N concentrations in the berries and roots are affected by abiotic conditions, such as vine water availability, during the

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Kyle M. VandenLangenberg, Paul C. Bethke and James Nienhuis

, and leafy vegetables, affect sugar accumulations and ratios ( Hounsome et al., 2008 ; Lee et al., 1970 ). Regardless of the tissue type, sugar concentrations are cultivar-dependent and highly variable ( Nunes, 2008 ). The stage of maturity of tissue

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Craig A. Campbell

This paper describes the field research and development (FRD) process followed by agrochemical companies when developing a new plant growth regulator (PGR). Specific approaches used by Valent BioSciences Corporation in developing EcoLyst, a newly registered PGR for use on orange (Citrus sinensis) in the United States, are cited as examples of this process. Agrochemical companies acquire some new PGR compounds from outside sources, while others are discovered internally. Internal development of new compounds is simpler to control and manage. When a new PGR is identified from an outside source, a company must first determine if the compound is available for licensing or outright purchase. If so, they assemble a team of internal experts to review all available data (due diligence) to determine if it has sufficient value to warrant pursuit. Once a PGR passes the initial screening processes and is approved for acquisition and potential development, negotiations begin with the owner of the compound. Many projects stop abruptly when the negotiating companies fail to reach an agreement. Immediately after an agrochemical company successfully acquires a new PGR, a well-coordinated chain of events is initiated throughout the company's organization to accelerate work on the project. One component of this involves the FRD team, which creates a comprehensive field research plan for the PGR containing clearly defined development goals that are global in scope. The FRD team works throughout the world, near important crop production areas, conducting research with the company's products. Members of the FRD team generally report to a research leader located at the company's main headquarters. The FRD team is one part of a larger development team, that works collectively to find and develop promising new compounds and new uses for existing company products. If initial research results from a new compound are favorable, the objectives of the workplan increase significantly after the first year. University and government researchers are generally brought into the research programs after a year or two of in-house testing. Early stage work is often done under a secrecy agreement in order to protect proprietary information and interests. Specific control points are identified in the development process, where decisions are made to continue or not, based on reviews of research data, business plans, and regulatory progress.

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Jun Matsumoto, Hideyuki Goto, Yasutaka Kano, Akira Kikuchi, Hideaki Ueda and Yuta Nakatsubo

consider that larger cells are mature cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that nighttime heating of melon fruit causes early cell maturity, which, in turn, stimulates soluble sugar accumulation. Materials and Methods Plant materials and sampling. ‘Earl

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Sachiko Kawamura, Kyoko Ida, Masako Osawa and Takashi Ikeda

application of CPPU. Furthermore, the sugar content of seedless fruits induced by soft-X–irradiated pollen was similar to or higher than that of controls ( Sugiyama and Morishita, 2000 ). Thus, the role of seeds in sugar accumulation in watermelon is still

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Heeock Boo, Honggi Kim and Hyunhwa Lee

SS activity is notable, because it indicates higher sink strength during the stages of sugar accumulation. Photosynthetic assimilates produced in leaf chloroplasts are primarily converted into sucrose and starch. Starch accumulated during the

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Yosef Burger and Arthur A. Schaffer

to be a potential key controlling point in determining sugar accumulation and content ( Miron and Schaffer, 1991 ). However, Klann et al. (1993) reported no significant differences in SPS activity between fruit of sucrose-accumulating and hexose

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Marina Petreikov, Lena Yeselson, Shmuel Shen, Ilan Levin, Arthur A. Schaffer, Ari Efrati and Moshe Bar

( Schaffer et al., 2000 ). The rationale behind this strategy lies in the observation that the developing tomato fruit is a transient starch accumulator and the starch in the immature fruit may serve as a reservoir for soluble sugar accumulation during

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R. Paul Schreiner and Jungmin Lee

stress during ripening would alter sugar accumulation in berries, as often found in other studies ( Matthews and Anderson, 1988 ; Naor et al., 1993 ). A pot-in-pot system was used to reliably incur a water deficit during late summer because the

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Shijian Zhuang, Letizia Tozzini, Alan Green, Dana Acimovic, G. Stanley Howell, Simone D. Castellarin and Paolo Sabbatini

year (2011). Those results may offer potential for vineyard management practices aiming to improve fruit quality in cool climates where the onset of anthocyanin accumulation could be reduced and decoupled from sugar accumulation as suggested by Sadras