Seeds of jute (Chorchorus olitorius L.) undergo a period of dormancy, which hitherto has been broken with the conventional method of steeping in boiling water. Another seed treatment procedure, which involves soaking seeds in earthworm cast leachate, was found superior to the conventional method of breaking dormancy. Furthermore, radicle growth was enhanced when seeds were irrigated with water that contained earthworm cast leachate instead of water without earthworm cast leachate. This possibly suggests that earthworms excrete substances that contain hormones or biochemically active ingredients that are capable of stimulating root growth.
The tung-oil tree (Aleurites fordii) was planted extensively in the southeastern United States in the 40's and 50's for their high quality oil used in jet engines and paint. Elimination of import tariffs destroyed the US industry. There is a possibility of a resurgence in popularity of this species as an ornamental because of its large leaves, spring flowers, and dense growth. If nurseries begin growing tung-oil trees they must have more information on the most efficient means of seed germination. One hundred percent of the seeds with intact shells germinated in 9 weeks if they received either 24 hr stratification or 24 hr. soak. Eighty-three percent of the untreated intact seeds germinated in the same period. Shell removal sped up germination as evidenced by 27% germination in 5 weeks. However the process left seeds susceptible since only 36% had germinated in 9 weeks.
Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Schrad.) Matsum. & Nakai] seeds of the tetraploid ‘Alena’ and the diploid ‘Sugar Baby’ were subjected to one of several treatments prior to germination at 17°, 21°, and 25°C, including lateral splitting, soaking in H2O (aerated or nonaerated), GA4+7, or benzyladenine (BA) for 24 hr, or in KNO3 for 5 days, followed by drying. These treatments were successful in increasing germination percentage of ‘Alena’ seeds. Soaking treatments increased ‘Alena’ embryo length. ‘Alena’ seeds possessed thicker seed coats, larger seed cavities, and absorbed more water than those of their diploid counterpart, ‘Sugar Baby’.
Exposure of golden-rain tree seeds to an electromagnetic field of 100 gauss for 4.3 sec partially substitutes for cold stratification if applied after seed scarification. Germination was increased from 56 to 97%, when electromagnetic treatment was applied following scarification and before 84 days of cold stratification.
., 2015 ). Because Fusarium can survive on infested seeds, effective seed treatments are paramount in providing control ( Elmer et al., 1994 ; Gamliel et al., 1996 ; Keinath, 1994 ; Martini and Gullino, 1991 ). There are several methods for reducing
Indian Paintbrush (genus Castilleja) is a group of attractive wildflowers in which some species are facultative parasites on native grasses during early growth. This study hopes to characterize optimum germination, cultural and host requirements of several species. Lots of 100 seed of wild-collected Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. produced 22% germination without pre-treatment or presence of host plants 10 days after seeding at 21°C with 12 hours light. Seed soaked 24 hours in distilled water, 10 mg/l GA3 or-post-plant treated with Regal Crown nutrient and growth regulator soluotion did not significantly differ from above. Moist stratification at 4°C for 20 days significantly increased germination to 46%. Further stratification (up to 80 days) did not further increase germination. Additional data on light, temperature, media and presence of host plants will also be presented for this and other species.
Terminal stem cuttings of Kalmia latifolia were collected from wild plants (Milford, N.H.) on 12 Nov. and transported on ice to Orono, Maine, for analysis. Samples were processed as follows: 1) stems wrapped in dry cheesecloth; 2) stems wrapped in moist cheesecloth; and 3) stems seeded with crushed ice and wrapped in moist cheesecloth. Prepared samples were subjected to freezing tests to a low temperature of –36C. Following two weeks of incubation at 21C, samples were evaluated for leaf, petiole, stem, and vegetative bud damage. Evaluation of frozen samples revealed: 1) stem tissue remained undamaged to –36C; 2) leaf damage was inconsistent across all handling methods, with no clear LST estimate, and ice seedinggenerally resulted in increased tissue damage; 3) LSTs for vegetative buds and petiole bases were –18C and –15C, respectively, and both yielded definitive and consistent results across all treatments. The results indicate bud and petiole tissue to be the best to use for future studies on LST estimates in Kalmia latifolia.
The oil extracted from seed of selected accessions of Oenothera, also known as the wildflower evening primrose, has documented medical applications. Evening primrose oil contains from 0.0 to 12.0% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (C 18:3, delta 6, 9, 12). This unique fatty acid, which occurs in only a few plant species, can correct deficiencies in the delta 6 desaturase enzyme. Low levels of this enzyme prevent formation of the long chain fatty acids responsible for the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Supplementation of the diet with evening primrose oil rich in GLA ensures adequate levels of these essential products. Inconsistent seed germination, poor emergence, and small seed size of accessions containing higher levels of GLA have limited commercial production of this crop. Currently, most producers establish their field through transplants. In this project, methods of improving seed germination have been explored. Seed coatings using diatomaceous earth were shown to facilitate handling and improve germination in the laboratory. Osmotic priming and red light exposure were also evaluated as means of improving germination.