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−1 at room temperature (22 ± 2 °C). Seeds were blotted dry with a paper towel, weighed, and replaced in containers at 4-h intervals for 96 h. Percentage water uptake was calculated on the basis of actual increase in seed mass over the initial seed

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magnitude of change in stem counts between seedbed preparation treatments, and seed mass was the predictor variable. The magnitude of change for each species’ stem counts was calculated as [(μ 1 + 0.01) − (μ 2 + 0.01)]/(μ 2 + 0.01), where μ 1 = stem

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.B. Tjoelker, M.G. Walters, M.B. Vanderklein, D. Buschena, C. 1998 Close association of RGR, leaf and root morphology, seed mass and shade tolerance in seedlings of nine boreal tree species grown in high and low light Funct. Ecol. 12 327 338 Schwartz, B. 1997

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reproductive characteristics in angiosperms, II: Seeds and seedlings Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2 237 260 Susko, D.J. Lovett-Doust, L. 2000 Patterns of seed mass variation and their effects on seedling traits in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae) Amer. J. Bot. 87

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; whereas PI 432337 exudate was not inhibitory at up to 60% concentration, but inhibition was 50% with undiluted exudate. The 20% concentration is approximately equivalent to the seed mass per volume water like in the whole seed bioassays ( Tables 1 and 2

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( Beta vulgaris ; Goldman 1995 ), and differences in planting density contributed to the expression of genetic variation in seed mass of radish ( Raphanus sativus ; Mazer and Wolfe 1992 ). Plant breeding programs consider the role of planting density

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quantitative measures of seed development such as relative seed mass in determining seedlessness in progenies. There were significant differences between seedlings possessing the 214-bp p3_VvAGL11 allele and those that did not in all quantitative measures of

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, which was adjusted by 100-seed mass for each cultivar. Therefore, seed costs were $9.0 (AGS 292, Besweet 292, Gardensoy 42) and $10.8 (Midori Giant) per 1000 seed. Wholesale price of marketable pods was assumed $6.6 per kg for all cultivars. Seeding cost

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. Also, competition among fruit is thought to be proportional to sink size, which in turn is related to fruit and seed mass, but not to fruit number ( Farinelli et al., 2002b ; Rosati et al., 2010 ). In many fruit growth models such as the “Peach” model

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HortScience 35 196 198 Kobayashi, K. 2004 Factors affecting phytotoxic activity of allelochemicals in soil Weed Biol. Manage. 4 1 7 Liebman, M. Sundberg, D.N. 2006 Seed mass affects the

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