Irrespective of the political system our economics is based on production efficiency and/or profit. In most areas of economic activity we have rationalized our service to two masters by constraining Mammon with laws designed to protect the safety, health, and welfare of people.
extended shelf life that reduce postharvest losses could increase production efficiency by reducing the frequency of product replacement in the marketplace. This is often difficult to achieve because there are few reports on the genetics of postharvest
Studies were completed to optimize Stage II production efficiency of Pontederia cordata, a native wetland plant. Basal shoot tips from established cultures were subcultured into 60 ml glass culture tubes, 155 ml glass baby food jars, 350 ml GA7 polypropylene vessels or 500 ml clear polypropylene tissue culture containers containing full strength Linsmaier and Skoog mineral salts and organics supplemented with 3.0% sucrose, 2.0 mg/liter benzyladenine, 1.0 mg/liter indole-3-acetic acid, 50 mg/liter citric and ascorbic acids solidified with 8 g/liter TC® agar. Shoot tip to medium volume (ml) ratio was maintained 1:10 in each culture vessel. Vessel type had no significant effect on either shoot quality or multiplication rate (9.5 shoots/shoot tip/28 days). A maximum production efficiency of 1216 shoots/ft2/28 days was achieved using GA7 vessels. Stage II shoot multiplication rate significantly decreased when the interval between subculture exceeded 28 days.
In 1984 trees of `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' apple on 15 rootstocks were planted at 28 locations in North America according to guidelines established by The North Central Regional Cooperative Project (NC-140). The largest trees were on P.18, ANT.313, B.490 and seedling. Producing trees approximately 70% the size of seedling were rootstocks P.1 and M.7 EMLA while M.26 EMLA and C.6 were 50% the size of seedling. A group of rootstocks 30% the size of seedling or smaller were B.9, MAC.39, P.22, P.2, P.16. Rootstocks with high production efficiency were P.16, 8.9, P.22, P.2 and C.6. Rootstocks with low production efficiency similar to apple seedling were MAC.1, M.4., B.490, P.18 and ANT.313.
Market researchers have found that nursery and greenhouse production practices that reduce plastic use can increase consumer interest. However, there are broader crop performance, production efficiency, and environmental factors that must be considered before adopting containers made with alternative materials. This review highlights current commercially available alternative containers and parent materials. In addition, findings from recent and ongoing nursery, greenhouse, and landscape trials are synthesized, identifying common themes, inconsistencies, research gaps, and future research needs.
Dramatic increases have recently occurred in the productivity of the major food crops (rice, wheat, corn, grain sorghum, potatoes). These advancements have characterized a worldwide “green revolution” and received much publicity (2). An equally remarkable and parallel record of production efficiency, accompanied by an enhancement of quality, has also occurred with most fruits and vegetables (7). Many of these remarkable changes have transpired where as an increasingly greater percentage of the commodity is being utilized in the processed form.
We have witnessed an increasing interest in national and international food production over the past several years. The need for increased food production is covered in several documents such as Agricultural Production Efficiency (1), World Food and Nutrition Study (3). The World Food Problem (2), Food for Billions (5). Photosynthesis, Photorespiration and Plant Production (25), CO2 Metabolism and Plant Production (7) and an entire issue of Science (18).
System-level research has resulted in significant advancements in horticultural crop production. Contributions of individual components to production efficiency, cost, and environmental impact have been a focus of such research. Public awareness of the environmental impact of products and services is increasing. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool to study horticultural crop production systems and horticultural services and their individual components on environmental impacts such as the carbon footprint, stated as global warming potential. This manuscript introduces LCA and describes how this tool can be used to generate information important to the industry and consuming public.
The fruit breeding program of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station was begun in 1964. Crops initially targeted for improvement were strawberry, grape, and blackberry. In 1966, projects were approved for the breeding of peaches, nectarines, and apples; blueberries were added in 1976. The overall objective of the fruit breeding program is to develop cultivars uniquely adapted to the soils and climate of Arkansas to maximize production efficiency and that produce high-quality fruits for effective market use. To date, 16 cultivars have been developed and released from this program (Table 1). Many of these have become major commercial cultivars, not only in Arkansas but also in many other states.
`Redhaven' peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] on their own roots or budded to seven rootstock [`Bailey', `Siberian C', `Lovell', `Halford' (seedlings), GF 655.2, GF 677 (`Amandier'), or `Damas' (GF 1869) (clonal)] were evaluated for rootstock influence on flower bud hardiness, live pistils at bloom, thinning requirements, marketable yield, and production efficiency after exposure to temperatures lower than – 23C in 1987 and to - 26C in 1988. In 1987, flower bud hardiness was as great on `Siberian C' as on own-rooted `Redhaven' and greater than on the other rootstock. Fewer live pistils were observed during bloom on GF 677 than on `Siberian C', `Lovell', `Damas', or self-rooted trees in 1987. In 1988, flower bud hardiness was greater on `Siberian C' and `Bailey' than on GF 677. At bloom, `Lovell' and `Siberian C' rootstock carried more flowers with live pistils than `Damas'.`Siberian C' and `Lovell' required significantly greater fruit thinning than all other rootstock and self-rooted trees. GF 677 produced a larger marketable crop than GF 655.2 or `Damas'. In addition, `Bailey', `Lovell', and self-rooted trees produced a significantly larger crop than `Damas'. No significant rootstock effect on production efficiency was detected in either year. Tree vigor during the growing season preceding each freeze did not significantly influence flower bud survival or productivity.