sand-based rootzones are specified for golf course putting greens because they resist compaction and maintain drainage, even under heavy traffic. Although sands provide favorable physical properties, nutrient retention is generally poor and soluble nutrients like nitrogen (N) are prone to leaching. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate several inorganic soil amendments (clinoptilolite zeolite (CZ), diatomaceous earth, and two porous ceramics), which varied in cation exchange capacity (CEC), and sphagnum peat for their ability to limit N leaching. Columns (35 cm tall × 7.6 cm diameter) were filled with 30 cm of sand-amendment mixtures (8:2 v/v) and NH4NO3 was applied in solution at a N rate of 50 kg·ha-1. Leaching was initiated immediately using 2.5 pore volumes of distilled water in a continuous pulse. Leachate was collected in 0.1 pore volume aliquots and analyzed for NH4 +-N and NO3 --N. All amendments significantly decreased NH4 + leaching from 27% to 88% which was directly proportional to the CEC of the amendments. By contrast, NO3 - losses were consistently high, and no amendment effectively decreased loss compared to nonamended sand. Two amendments with the highest CECs, CZ and a porous ceramic, were selected to further study the effects of amendment incorporation rate, depth, and incubation time on N leaching. Ammonium but not NO3 - leaching was decreased with increasing amendment rate of both products. At 10% amendment (v/v) addition, only 17% to 33% of applied NH4 + leached from the amended sands. Depth of amendment incorporation significantly affected NH4 + leaching, with uniform distribution through the entire 30 cm tall column being more effective than placement within the upper 2.5 or 15 cm. Allowing the NH4NO3 to incubate for 12 or 24 hours following application generally did not affect the amount leached. These results suggest NH4 +-N leaching is inversely related to CEC of the root-zone mixture and that uniform distribution of these CEC enhancing amendments in the root-zone mixtures reduced N leaching to a greater extent than nonuniform distribution.
Cale A. Bigelow, Daniel C. Bowman and D. Keith Cassel
Amaya Atucha, Ian A. Merwin, Chandra K. Purohit and Michael G. Brown
Excessive nitrogen (N) applications can increase surface and water contamination, and leaching losses may occur when N fertilizer rates are too high relative to crop demands and soil N availability. Quantifying nutrient inputs, cycling, and outputs from orchards provides a method to measure surplus of nutrients, particularly N, that may leach or runoff. We conducted a long-term study to develop N budgets based on observed nutrient dynamics under four groundcover management systems (GMSs) with and without N fertilization. Four GMS treatments were randomly assigned to 12 plots and maintained since 1992 in 2-m-wide strips within tree rows: pre-emergence residual herbicide (PreHerb), post-emergence herbicide (PostHerb), mowed-sod (Sod), and hardwood bark mulch (Mulch). We measured system N inputs in fertilizer, mulch biomass, rain, and irrigation water; N outputs in harvested fruit, surface runoff, and subsurface leaching; and internal N cycling from surface vegetation, soil mineralization, leaf fall, and pruned wood. For the year with N fertilizer (2005), the overall N balance was positive (inputs exceeded outputs) in all GMSs but greater in the PostHerb and Mulch treatments. In the year without N fertilizer (2007), the overall N balance was negative for PreHerb and PostHerb and positive for Mulch and Sod treatments. Soil mineralization and recycling groundcover biomass accounted for greater than 60% of internal N fluxes, and harvested fruit represented greater than 70% of N outputs from the system during both years. During the year with N fertilizer, N losses were 1% to 4% and 18% to 22% through surface runoff and subsurface leaching, respectively. During the year without fertilizer, surface runoff N losses were twice the subsurface leaching N losses in all GMSs.
Laurie E. Trenholm and Jerry B. Sartain
was reported to be lower than that in natural rainfall. Quiroga-Garza et al. (2001) concluded that proper timing (during active growth) of quick-release N (QRN) sources could limit nitrate leaching and that QRN sources, when applied at appropriate
D. Neilsen and G.H. Neilsen
In irrigated apple orchard systems, the magnitude and timing of plant demand for nitrogen (N) and retention of N in the root zone to allow root interception are important factors for efficient management of N fertilizer. Results from five experiments in high-density plantings of apple (Malus domestica) on dwarfing (`Malling 9') rootstocks are reported. All experimental plots received daily drip irrigation and N applied through the irrigation system (fertigation) with different regimes according to experimental design. Labelled fertilizer applications, whole tree excavation and partitioning and removal of N in fruit and senescent leaves were used to assess tree N demand. Nitrogen requirements ranged from 8 to 40 lb/acre (8.8 to 44 kg·ha-1) over the first 6 years after planting and N use efficiency was often low (<30%), likely because supply exceeded demand. Annual growth is supported by N remobilized from storage and taken up by roots. Root uptake of labelled fertilizer was negligible during early spring and the commencement of rapid uptake was associated with the end of remobilization and the start of shoot growth, rendering prebloom fertilizer applications ineffective. Thus timing of N supply to periods of high demand is crucial for improving efficiency. Comparisons were made to determine the effects on N leaching and tree N utilization of irrigation scheduled to meet evaporative demand and irrigation applied at a fixed rate. Water losses beneath the root zone were greater for fixed rate than scheduled irrigation during the coolest months (May, June and September) of irrigation application. Nitrogen leaching followed a similar pattern during times of N fertigation (May and June). Greater N use efficiency was also measured for trees when irrigation was scheduled to meet evaporative demand rather than applied at a fixed rate. The most N efficient management system was for trees receiving a low [50 ppm (mg·L-1)] fertigated N supply, at 0 to 4 or 4 to 8 weeks following bloom with scheduled irrigation.
R. Scott Johnson, Rich Rosecrance, Steve Weinbaum, Harry Andris and Jinzheng Wang
The suspected contributory role of soil fertilization to nitrate pollution of groundwater has encouraged exploration of novel fertilizer management strategies. Foliar-applied urea has long been used to supplement soil N applications, but there have been no apparent attempts to replace soil N applications completely in deciduous orchard culture. Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of foliar-applied low biuret urea on productivity and fruit growth of the early maturing peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch (Peach Group)] cultivar, Early Maycrest. In a 3-year experiment, a total foliar urea regime was compared to an equivalent amount of N applied to the soil. The foliar treatment supplied adequate amounts of N to the various organs of the tree including the roots, shoots, and fruit buds, but mean fruit weights were lower than in the soil-fertilized treatment. In a 2-year experiment, a 50%-50% combination treatment of soil-applied N in late summer with foliar-applied N in October, maintained yields and fruit weight equal to the soil-fertilized control. Some soil-applied N appears necessary for optimum fruit growth. Soil N application may be needed to support root proliferation and associated processes, but we did not determine a threshold amount of soil-applied N needed. The combination treatment also reduced excessive vegetative growth which is characteristic of early maturing peach cultivars. Therefore, this combination treatment offers promise as a viable commercial practice for maintaining tree productivity and controlling excessive vegetative growth in peach trees.
Taun Beddes and Heidi A. Kratsch
have increased survival upon installation in the landscape. Nitrate leaching from nodulated plants in the landscape also should be tested because no data are available on optimal levels of N fertilization of nodulated landscape plants. Literature cited
Paolo Benincasa, Marcello Guiducci and Francesco Tei
development or the N availability from the soil through effects on mineralization of SOM and organic fertilizers and on nitrate leaching ( Agostini et al., 2010 ). For this reason, any conclusions regarding NUE of crops should derive from experiments carried
Bielinski M. Santos
low organic matter, and high water tables are the norm. The nutrient-leaching potential of these soils is relatively high, which has important environmental and crop production implications. From the environmental standpoint, nitrate leaching to
Rachel E. Rudolph, Thomas W. Walters, Lisa W. DeVetter and Inga A. Zasada
cover crop to winter wheat may not find anything better than wheat. Maintaining bare soil during the winter in the PNW is also not a viable option; consistent rainfall during the winter months can lead to severe soil erosion and nitrate leaching. Root
Daniel T. Lloyd, Douglas J. Soldat and John C. Stier
.S. Guillard, K. 2006 Fall fertilization timing effects on nitrate leaching and turfgrass color and growth J. Environ. Qual. 35 163 171 Miltner, E.D. Branham, B.E. Paul, E.A. Rieke, P.E. 1996 Leaching and mass balance of 15 N-labeled urea applied to a kentucky