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Nina R.F. Castillo, Barbara M. Reed, Julie Graham, Felicidad Fernández-Fernández and Nahla Victor Bassil

reliable means for cultivar identification and to assess genetic relatedness and diversity in these collections. Microsatellite markers were only recently developed from an expressed sequence tag library of ‘Merton Thornless’ ( Lewers et al., 2008 ). A

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Claudio Cantini, Antonio Cimato, Antonella Autino, Alessandro Redi and Mauro Cresti

cultivars, their dominant character (RAPDs and AFLPs) or poor reproducibility among different laboratories and experiments (RAPDs) are still considered major drawbacks in cultivar fingerprinting. Among the others, microsatellite markers have proved

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Riaz Ahmad, Darush Struss and Stephen M. Southwick

We evaluated the potential of microsatellite markers for use in Citrus genome analysis. Microsatellite loci were identified by screening enriched and nonenriched libraries developed from `Washington Navel' Citrus. Microsatellite-containing clones were sequenced and 26 specific PCR primers were selected for cross-species amplification and identification of cultivars/clones in Citrus. After an enrichment procedure, on average 69.9% of clones contained dinucleotide repeats (CA)n and (CT)n, in contrast to <25% of the clones that were identified as positive in hybridization screening of a nonenriched library. A library enriched for trinucleotide (CTT)n contained <15% of the clones with (CTT)n repeats. Repeat length for most of the dinucleotide microsatellites was in the range of 10 to 30 units. We observed that enrichment procedure pulled out more of the (CA)n repeats than (CT)n repeats from the Citrus genome. All microsatellites were polymorphic except one. No correlation was observed between the number of alleles and the number of microsatellite repeats. In total, 118 putative alleles were detected using 26 primer pairs. The number of putative alleles per primer pair ranged from one to nine with an average of 4.5. Microsatellite markers discriminated sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) osb], mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.], and citrange (hybrids of trifoliate orange and sweet orange), at the species level, but individual cultivars/clones within sweet oranges, mandarins and grapefruit known to have evolved by somatic mutation remained undistinguishable. Since these microsatellite markers were conserved within different Citrus species, they could be used for linkage mapping, evolutionary and taxonomic study in Citrus.

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Peter Boches, Nahla V. Bassil and Lisa Rowland

Sixty-nine accessions representing wild and domesticated highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) germplasm were genotyped using 28 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 627 alleles was detected and unique fingerprints were generated for all accessions. Suspected duplicate accessions of `Coville' and `Ivanhoe' had DNA fingerprints that were identical to `Coville' and `Ivanhoe', respectively. Genetic similarity measures placed wild and cultivated blueberries in separate groups. Northern highbush blueberries grouped among ancestral clones that were used extensively in blueberry breeding such as `Rubel' and `Stanley'. Southern highbush blueberries formed a separate group from northern highbush blueberries. The microsatellite markers used here show excellent promise for further use in germplasm identification, in genetic studies of wild Vaccinium L. populations, and for constructing linkage maps.

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Nahla V. Bassil, R. Botta and S.A. Mehlenbacher

Three microsatellite-enriched libraries of the european hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) were constructed: library A for CA repeats, library B for GA repeats, and library C for GAA repeats. Twenty-five primer pairs amplified easy-to-score single loci and were used to investigate polymorphism among 20 C. avellana genotypes and to evaluate cross-species amplification in seven Corylus L. species. Microsatellite alleles were estimated by fluorescent capillary electrophoresis fragment sizing. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 12 (average = 7.16) in C. avellana and from 5 to 22 overall (average = 13.32). With the exception of CAC-B110, di-nucleotide SSRs were characterized by a relatively large number of alleles per locus (≥5), high average observed and expected heterozygosity (Ho and He > 0.6), and a high mean polymorphic information content (PIC ≥ 0.6) in C. avellana. In contrast, tri-nucleotide microsatellites were more homozygous (Ho = 0.4 on average) and less informative than di-nucleotide simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as indicated by a lower mean number of alleles per locus (4.5), He (0.59), and PIC (0.54). Cross-species amplification in Corylus was demonstrated. These microsatellite markers were highly heterozygous and polymorphic and differentiated among genotypes of C. avellana irrespective of geographical origin. They will aid in fingerprinting genotypes of the european hazelnut and other Corylus species, genome mapping, and genetic diversity assessments.

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Kuaifei Xia, Xiulin Ye and Mingyong Zhang

. sinense 's life history and ecology are poorly understood. We report on novel microsatellite markers developed for C. sinense that can be used for population genetic analyses, detection of hybrids, and parentage studies in future, which in turn should

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Barbara S. Gilmore, Nahla V. Bassil, Danny L. Barney, Brian J. Knaus and Kim E. Hummer

stringent filter yielded the largest possible flanking sequences for subsequent primer design ( Jennings et al., 2011 ). Microsatellite marker development. PCR primers were designed for each SSR-containing singleton cluster and contig sequence with

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R.J. Schnell, J.S. Brown, C.T. Olano, A.W. Meerow, R.J. Campbell and D.N. Kuhn

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm can be classified by origin with the primary groups being cultivars selected from the centers of diversity for the species, India and Southeast Asia, and those selected in Florida and other tropical and subtropical locations. Accessions have also been classified by horticultural type: cultivars that produce monoembryonic seed vs. cultivars that produce polyembryonic seed. In this study we used 25 microsatellite loci to estimate genetic diversity among 203 unique mangos (M. indica), two M. griffithii Hook. f., and three M. odorata Griff. accessions maintained at the National Germplasm Repository and by Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden in Miami, Fla. The 25 microsatellite loci had an average of 6.96 alleles per locus and an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.552 for the M. indica population. The total propagation error in the collection (i.e., plants that had been incorrectly labeled or grafted) was estimated to be 6.13%. When compared by origin, the Florida cultivars were more closely related to Indian than to Southeast Asian cultivars. Unbiased gene diversity (Hnb) of 0.600 and 0.582 was found for Indian and Southeast Asian cultivars, respectively, and both were higher than Hnb among Florida cultivars (0.538). When compared by horticultural type, Hnb was higher among the polyembryonic types (0.596) than in the monoembryonic types (0.571). Parentage analysis of the Florida cultivars was accomplished using a multistage process based on introduction dates of cultivars into Florida and selection dates of Florida cultivars. In total, 64 Florida cultivars were evaluated over four generations. Microsatellite marker evidence suggests that as few as four Indian cultivars, and the land race known as `Turpentine', were involved in the early cultivar selections. Florida may not represent a secondary center of diversity; however, the Florida group is a unique set of cultivars selected under similar conditions offering production stability in a wide range of environments.

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L.H. Zhang, D.H. Byrne, R.E. Ballard and S. Rajapakse

Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from Rosa wichurana Crépin to combine two previously constructed tetraploid rose (Rosa hybrida L.) genetic maps. To isolate SSR-containing sequences from rose a small-insert genomic library was constructed from diploid Rosa wichurana and screened with several SSR probes. Specific primers were designed for 43 unique SSR regions, of which 30 primer pairs gave rise to clear PCR products. Seventeen SSR primer pairs (57%) produced polymorphism in the tetraploid rose 90-69 mapping family. These markers were incorporated into existing maps of the parents 86-7 and 82-1134, which were constructed primarily with AFLP markers. The current map of the male parent, amphidiploid 86-7, consists of 286 markers assigned to 14 linkage groups and covering 770 cm. The map of the female tetraploid parent, 82-1134, consists of 256 markers assigned to 20 linkage groups and covering 920 cm. Nineteen rose SSR loci were mapped on the 86-7 map and 11 on the 82-1134 map. Several homeologous linkage groups within maps were identified based on SSR markers. In addition, some of the SSR markers provided anchoring points between the two parental maps. SSR markers were also useful for joining small linkage groups. Based on shared SSR markers, consensus orders for four rose linkage groups between parental maps were generated. Microsatellite markers developed in this study will provide valuable tools for many aspects of rose research including future consolidation of diploid and tetraploid rose genetic linkage maps, genetic, phylogenetic and population analyses, cultivar identification, and marker-assisted selection.

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Raymond Schnell, J. Steven Brown, Cecile Olano, Alan Meerow, Richard Campbell and David Kuhn

Mangifera indica L. germplasm can be classified by origin with the primary groups being cultivars selected from the centers of diversity for the species, India and Southeast Asia, and those selected in Florida and other tropical and subtropical locations. Accessions have also been classified by horticultural type: cultivars that produce monoembryonic seed vs. cultivars that produce polyembryonic seed. In this study, we used 25 microsatellite loci to estimate genetic diversity among 203 accessions. The 25 microsatellite loci had an average of 6.96 alleles per locus and an average PIC value of 0.552. The total propagation error in the collection, i.e., plants that had been incorrectly labeled or grafted, was estimated to be 6.13%. When compared by origin, the Florida cultivars were more closely related to Indian than to Southeast Asian cultivars. Unbiased gene diversity (Hnb) of 0.600 and 0.582 was found for Indian and Southeast Asian cultivars, respectively, and both were higher than Hnb among Florida cultivars (0.538). When compared by horticultural type, Hnb was higher among the polyembryonic types (0.596) than in the monoembryonic types (0.571). Parentage analysis of the Florida cultivars was accomplished using a multistage process based on introduction dates of cultivars into Florida and selection dates of Florida cultivars. Microsatellite marker evidence suggests that as few as four Indian cultivars, and the land race known as `Turpentine', were involved in the early cultivar selections. Florida may not represent a secondary center of diversity; however, the Florida group is a unique set of cultivars selected under similar conditions offering production stability in a wide range of environments.