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Justin Morris, Gary Main, Renee Threlfall and Keith Striegler

have been incorporated into vineyards to reduce labor costs and the time spent pruning ( Clingeleffer, 1988 ; Morris, 2005 ). About 60% to 70% of Australia's wine grapes receive some form of mechanical pruning ( Clingeleffer, 1993 ; Clingeleffer and

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Geoffrey Dervishian and Robert L. Wample

mechanically pruning the previous year’s canes to a bearing surface height of 8 inches in the dormant season with a 24-inch double, sprawl-pruner head (model 63700; Oxbo International, Kingsburg, CA) mounted onto tool carrier (model 1210, Oxbo International

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Justin R. Morris

development and adoption of trellises that could be totally mechanized became of paramount importance. Trellises were needed that would allow maximum accessibility of the fruit to the harvester's shaking mechanism and effective mechanical pruning for each vine

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California Pruning of wine grapes remains the most labor-intensive portion of grape growing. Kurtural et al. (p. 128) compared three training systems during a conversion to mechanical pruning. Grapevines grown on a mechanically pruned single high-wire system

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Jesús A. Gil-Ribes, Louise Ferguson, Sergio Castro-Garcia and Gregorio L. Blanco-Rodán

mechanical pruning, can enhance harvester efficiency ( Burns et al., 2005 ; Lavee, 2010 ). This research also requires a multidisciplinary team and longer term funding. At least 4 to 6 years is required to adapt existing orchards as the effects of the

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Joan R. Davenport, Markus Keller and Lynn J. Mills

soon after leaf fall; both manual and mechanical pruning are used for juice grapes ( Keller et al., 2004 ). However, pruning of V. vinifera wine grapes, which are mostly cordon-trained and spur-pruned in the inland Northwest, is usually delayed as

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postharvest decay similar to benomyl, often by about half. Although not as effective as benomyl or thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin and phosphorous acid also significantly reduced postharvest decay. MECHANICAL PRUNING OFFERS PECAN GROWERS A COST

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temperature variations in unvented hoop houses. Because the hoop houses were relatively inexpensive and easy to construct, they potentially will augment students' practical horticulture skills without straining teaching budgets. Mechanical Pruning Decreases

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R. Karina Gallardo, Kara Grant, David J. Brown, James R. McFerson, Karen M. Lewis, Todd Einhorn and Mario Miranda Sazo

taste characteristics such as sweetness. Decreases in labor availability throughout the United States have encouraged the use of mechanical pruning (Robinson et al., 2013) based on techniques and equipment used in Europe ( Miranda Sazo et al., 2010

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Alisson P. Kovaleski, Rebecca L. Darnell, Bruno Casamali and Jeffrey G. Williamson

compared with a nonpruned control. The effect of shoot tipping was assessed by comparing tipping vs. no tipping in July on plants that received moderate pruning in June. Pruning treatments, as well as tipping, were done mechanically, pruning the top and