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Jeanne Briggs, Ted Whitwell, R. Thomas Fernandez and Melissa B. Riley

Field research was conducted at a container nursery to investigate fungicide movement in runoff water. Fungicides were applied as either a preventative treatment to all container plants, or as a component of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in which fungicides were only applied to plants showing signs of pathogen infestation. Thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were applied in July and August 1998, and metalaxyl was applied in September 1998. Runoff water was sampled on the day after application (first irrigation after pesticide application) through three pulse irrigation cycles. Total amounts of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil in runoff water were 7% and 4%, respectively, of applied amount in July. In August, 2% and 4% of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were found from the preventative treatment. Of the applied metalaxyl, 25% was detected in runoff water for the first irrigation event after application from the preventative treatment. Metalaxyl is a highly water soluble pesticide and nontarget losses from the granular application contributed to the large amounts detected. Total amounts of thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil and metalaxyl detected in runoff from the IPM treatment were 25% of amounts from the preventative treatment. No treatment differences were found in container plant salability or in the number of culls at the end of the study.

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James W. Rushing, Wilton P. Cook and Larry Spell

Water analyses from six commercial tomato packinghouse dump tanks in South Carolina revealed that metal and pesticide residues accumulate in the dump-tank water during daily operation. The amount that accumulated varied widely as follows: Asana (esfenvalerate), 0.3 to 13.8 ppb; Bravo (chlorothalonil), 0.1 to 2.7 ppm; copper, 2.0 to 7.3 ppm; and manganese, 0.1 to 2.5 ppm. Contamination appeared to be lowest when growers implemented integrated pest management (IPM) during production. In a subsequent controlled study, tomatoes were produced under the following pest-management practices: IPM protocol with pesticide applications based on scouting reports, modified IPM with one arbitrary pesticide application at bloom, and weekly pesticide application regardless of pest pressure. In a small-scale dump tank simulating commercial packinghouse operation, the water used for tomatoes that were produced with a weekly spray schedule had about 2 to 10 times the amount of pesticide and metal residues found in the water used for tomatoes grown under IPM protocol. Modified IPM protocol resulted in intermediate levels of residues. These results confirm that IPM field practices can reduce residues in tomato packinghouse wastewater.

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Larry G. Olsen

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Stephen S. Miller and Mark W. Brown

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Michael A. Schnelle and Sharon L. von Broembsen

A pilot IPM program has been implemented for the commercial greenhouse industry in Oklahoma. Key growers and cooperative extension agents have formed working IPM teams across the state. After administering a pretest to establish an educational baseline, IPM workshops have been presented to growers and agents. By use of these specialist-mediated workshops key growers have received sufficient training to implement a multi-phase IPM program. Establishment of proper cultural and management practices has occurred within the first six months of training. As a result, advanced growers are now implementing basic IPM practices and are anticipating the use of biological controls within this year. Due to the success of the pilot program, workshops will be offered statewide next year. Extension IPM bulletins are being written to facilitate the comprehensive effort. This pilot program should serve as a model and impetus for extension specialists and greenhouse grower organizations in other states to incorporate IPM strategies in their production and management practices.

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Wayne J. McLaurin

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Marsha A. Bower, L. Michele Quinn and John M. Brown

Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of biological control measures to control Western Flower Thrips. Thrips population and preferred trap color were examined using sticky trap tapes in 5 fluorescent colors, orange, yellow, green, blue and pink. Results indicated that pink is more effective in attracting thrips than the traditional yellow or the newly acclaimed blue sticky traps on the market now. Studies were also conducted to determine if the entomogenous nematode (Steinernema feltiae) could invade and parasitize Western Flower Thrips, and which stage of the thrips life cycle was most susceptible to parasitization. Thrips were dissected and checked for nematode invasion at 24, 48 and 72 hours after inoculation. S. feltiae was found to invade the body cavity after 24 hours in the larval stage of Western Flower Thrips resulting in death.

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Marsha A. Bower, L. Michele Quinn and John M. Brown

Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of biological control measures to control Western Flower Thrips. Thrips population and preferred trap color were examined using sticky trap tapes in 5 fluorescent colors, orange, yellow, green, blue and pink. Results indicated that pink is more effective in attracting thrips than the traditional yellow or the newly acclaimed blue sticky traps on the market now. Studies were also conducted to determine if the entomogenous nematode (Steinernema feltiae) could invade and parasitize Western Flower Thrips, and which stage of the thrips life cycle was most susceptible to parasitization. Thrips were dissected and checked for nematode invasion at 24, 48 and 72 hours after inoculation. S. feltiae was found to invade the body cavity after 24 hours in the larval stage of Western Flower Thrips resulting in death.