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Mark Scaroni and Jo Ann C. Wheatley

This project examined a floating row cover as an alternative to chemical use for pest control. Insect and vertebrate pest control was excellent on the covered versus the uncovered crop plants. Average weight, length, and quality were enhanced through the use of covers. The interval of transplant-to-harvest was also decreased. While the cost of row cover use is quite high on a per-acre basis, additional gains in quality, yields, earlier plantings, and earlier harvests may justify the use of row covers as an alternative to chemical control. Although acceptance and use of row covers may ultimately rely on the consumer, demand for organically grown vegetables will warrant further evaluation of row cover materials.

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Mark Scaroni and Jo Ann C. Wheatley

This project examined a floating row cover as an alternative to chemical use for pest control. Insect and vertebrate pest control was excellent on the covered versus the uncovered crop plants. Average weight, length, and quality were enhanced through the use of covers. The interval of transplant-to-harvest was also decreased. While the cost of row cover use is quite high on a per-acre basis, additional gains in quality, yields, earlier plantings, and earlier harvests may justify the use of row covers as an alternative to chemical control. Although acceptance and use of row covers may ultimately rely on the consumer, demand for organically grown vegetables will warrant further evaluation of row cover materials.

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Salvador Vitanza, Celeste Welty, Mark Bennett, Sally Miller and Richard Derksen

The impact of pesticide application technology and crop stand density on bell pepper production was evaluated in a series of field trials, during 2004 and 2005, at the North Central Agricultural Research Station, Fremont, Ohio. In 2004, one trial tested three sprayers, at a speed of 8 and 4 mph, using insecticides at half the recommended rate and one treatment at full rate. Sprayers evaluated included an air-assisted electrostatic sprayer, a Cagle sprayer equipped with AI-11005 or AI-110025 nozzles, and an air-blast sprayer with XR-1003-VS or XR-110015-VS nozzles. In 2005, one experiment tested the interaction of two application technologies, three planting distances within row, and single vs. twin rows. Another experiment compared the Cagle sprayer (with TJ60-11003 or AI-110025 nozzles) and the airblast sprayer (with XR-110015-VS nozzles), at a speed of 4 mph, and insecticides at half the recommended rate. In 2004, the Cagle sprayer with air-induction nozzle, half rate, at 8 mph obtained the highest fruit yield. There was not significant improvement in European corn borer control by applying insecticides at full rate with the Cagle sprayer and all treatments achieved significantly better bacterial soft rot control than the untreated control. In 2005, the trials were terminated early due to crop destruction by Phytophthora capsici. Red fruit weighed less at high than at medium or low plant stand densities. Clean yield of red fruit was significantly greater in single rows than in twin rows. Marketable yield of green fruit was greater using the TJ60-11003 than using the AI-110025 nozzles.

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Dominique Michaud, Serge Overney, Binh Nguyen-Quoc and Serge Yelle

In the past few years, transformation of plant genomes with proteinase inhibitor (PI) genes has been proposed as an effective way to produce insect-tolerant plants. For such a control approach, however, biochemical studies are necessary to assess the effect of PIs on not only insect digestive proteinases (target enzymes) but also plant endogenous proteinases (nontarget enzymes). As an example, transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with oryzacystatin (OC) genes, two cysteine PIs, was considered for controlling Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). The use of electrophoretic approaches and standard assays showed that CPB uses at least 14 cysteine proteinases for protein digestion throughout its development. Proteinases of the same class were also detected in sprouting potato tuber extracts, suggesting a potential interference of cPIs in transgenic plants. While OCs inhibit a significant fraction of CPB digestive proteinases, no inactivation of potato proteinases was detected. This apparent absence of direct interference suggests the real potential of OCs for producing CPB-tolerant transgenic potato plants.

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John L. Maas, John M. Enns, Stan C. Hokanson and Richard L. Hellmich

Larvae of several insects injure and kill strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) plants by burrowing into and hollowing out plant crowns. Occasionally, these infestations are serious enough to cause heavy economic losses to fruit producers and nursery plant growers. In 1997 in Beltsville, Md., we observed wilting and dying mature plants and unrooted runner plants in two experimental strawberry plantings. Injury by larvae was extensive; large cavities occurred in crowns, and the central pith tissues were removed from stolons and leaf petioles. Often, insect frass was seen at entrance holes. Larvae removed from hollowed-out parts of injured plants were identified as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) in their fifth instar stage. Their presence in this instance also was associated with a cover crop of millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., `German Strain R'] planted between the strawberry rows for weed suppression. This is the first published report of the European corn borer attacking strawberry. Although this insect may occur only sporadically in strawberry plantings, it may become important in the future. Growers and other professionals should become aware of this new strawberry pest and recognize that its management in strawberry will be different from management of other crown-boring insects.

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Amanda Skidmore, Neil Wilson, Mark Williams and Ric Bessin

techniques are designed to reduce sole reliance on chemical insecticide, boost ecosystem functioning, and increase yield ( Kogan, 1998 ; Waterfield and Zilberman, 2012 ). Research of cucurbit IPM for insect pests and the pathogens they vector has focused on

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Suzette P. Galinato, R. Karina Gallardo, David M. Granatstein and Mike Willett

Apple maggot is an insect pest with a wide host range and the potential to cause damage to about 55 plant species in 10 genera in the rose family (Rosaceae), including fruits such as apple, pear ( Pyrus communis ), and plum ( Prunus domestica

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Nathan J. Herrick and Raymond A. Cloyd

; Harris et al., 1995 ; Wright and Chambers, 1994 ). The rove beetle, Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), is a commercially available predator of greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnat larvae, that resides in the growing medium

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Wenlei Guo, Li Feng, Dandan Wu, Chun Zhang and Xingshan Tian

insect pests, plant diseases and weeds throughout the year in the region ( Liu et al., 2014 ; Shen et al., 2018 ). To ensure a good harvest, necessary control strategies, particularly chemical measures, are implemented mainly in two stages: before