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Blue light (320 to 496 nm) alters hypocotyl and stem elongation and leaf expansion in short-term, cell-level experiments, but histological effects of blue light in long-term studies of whole plants have not been described. We measured cell size and number in stems of soybean (Glycine max L.) and leaves of soybean and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), at two blue light fractions. Short-term studies have shown that cell expansion in stems is rapidly inhibited when etiolated tissue is exposed to blue light. However, under long-term light exposure, an increase in the blue light fraction from <0.1% to 26% decreased internode length, specifically by inhibiting soybean cell division in stems. In contrast, an increase in blue light fraction from 6% to 26% reduced soybean leaf area by decreasing cell expansion. Surprisingly, lettuce leaf area increased with increasing blue light fraction (0% to 6%), which was attributed to a 3.1-fold increase in cell expansion and a 1.6-fold increase in cell division.

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New shoot growth of Carpinus betulus L. fastigiata was subjected to stock plant etiolation and stem banding (a 2.5-cm square of Velcro applied to the shoot base) treatments and sampled for histological study at intervals over a 16-week period of shoot development following etiolation. Effects of partial shading on histology of the stem were also investigated. Numerous histological changes were noted with stem development and stock plant treatment. Among these were a reduction in lignification of the secondary xylem and thickness of the periderm, and an increase in the percentage of sclereid-free gaps in the perivascular sclerenchyma with etiolation. Concomitant propagation studies revealed significant etiolation, shading, and banding effects on rooting percentages and root numbers. Rooting capacity was modelled using linear combinations of the widths of nonlignified secondary xylem, cortical parenchyma and periderm, as well as the percentage of gaps in the sclerenchymatic sheath remaining free of sclereids. It is proposed that the development of sclereids in potential rooting sites reduces rooting potential. The exclusion of light during initial shoot development retards sclereid development by up to 3 months following treatment, which correlates well with observed increases in the rooting potential of etiolated stems.

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Five-year old `Sharpblue' southern highbush blueberry plants (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were self- and cross-pollinated (`O'Neal') to study peroxidase (POD) activity, isozyme patterns, and histological localization during fruit development. Cross-pollination resulted in larger and earlier-ripening fruit. Activities of soluble and bound POD were very high during fruit growth period I, with peaks at 10 and 20 days after self- and cross-pollination. Activity was much higher for cross-pollinated fruit. During fruit growth period II, POD activities were low in both pollination treatments. During ripening, soluble POD increased, then declined in both treatments. Bound POD activities increased during the color transition from blue to dark blue, with the increase greater in self-pollinated fruit. Banding patterns of soluble and bound POD isozymes and their histological localization varied by pollination treatment as well as fruit developmental stage. During fruit ripening, soluble POD activity appeared to be associated with color transition from light blue to blue, while bound POD activity appeared to be associated with color transition from blue to dark blue.

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Abstract

In propagating Asparagus officinalis L. through the method of shoot apex culture, apices of terminal buds of spears produced in vitro were found to be equally satisfactory as explants as those of lateral buds of spears obtained from the field. A maximum number of plants was obtained when the cultures were illuminated 4-20 hr daily with white fluorescent or Gro-Lux lamps at an intensity of 1000 lux. A constant 27°C temp was also optimum for plant formation in vitro. Histological examination revealed that roots arose adventitiously from callus which formed at the base of the explant, whereas spears originated from axillary buds.

Successful transfer of plants from laboratory to soil required a prior reculture in a medium lacking NAA and with the light intensity increased to 3000 or 10,000 lux. Examination of the chromosome numbers of plants propagated through shoot apex culture showed that the original diploid status had been retained in every plant.

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findings suggest that crisp texture is likely associated with differences in or near the epidermal layer of the berry. The objective of this study was to perform a histological analysis of cell type, area, and structure of the outermost cell layers of

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A study to compare the response to postharvest chilling (4 °C) for up to 3 weeks of melting-flesh (MF)—FL 90-20, FL 90-21W, and FL 91-16—and nonmelting-flesh (NMF)—`Oro A', FL 90-35C, and FL 90-47C—peach (Prunus persica L.) genotypes revealed that MF fruit were notably more susceptible to the development of mealiness than NMF types. Cell separation in mealy fruit was demonstrated by the release of mesocarp cells to an aqueous medium, allowing determination of mealiness severity. At a histological level, chilling brought about an impressive expansion of the intercellular spaces in MF mesocarp tissue but did not affect NMF fruit. A decrease in flesh electrical resistance after 1 week of chilling was observed only in MF fruit. However, electrical resistance increased in MF and NMF fruit following 2 and 3 weeks at 4 °C. Electrical resistance also decreased with ripening of MF fruit but did not change when NMF fruit were ripened. Unlike NMF fruit, the MF genotypes FL 90-21W and FL 91-16 showed an increase in respiration rate due to chilling. The rate of ethylene production decreased after 1 week at 4 °C in MF and NMF genotypes. However, two MF and two NMF genotypes exhibited rising ethylene levels after the second week of storage at 4 °C, while ethylene production in one MF and one NMF genotype continued to decline.

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Authors: , , and

, limited information is available about the pollinia development of Oncidesa , and there are no reports about the possible roles of anther tissues in relation to the male sterility or low fertility. Histological study on pollinia development is required to

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Abstract

The effect of ionizing radiation (10 to 100 kr of gamma rays) on cells of mature artichoke heads was studied. Spongy parenchyma cells of outer bracts separated following radiation and ruptured as the dose increased. The number of parenchyma cells increased with 10 kr treatment but decreased with doses higher than that. Following doses of 10 kr to the edible portion, some xylem vessels were blocked.

Open Access

The origin and development of somatic embryos from petiole sections of Regal geranium (Pelargonium ×domesticum Bailey `Madame Layal') were studied using time-series sections at days 0, 4, 8, 14, and 24. Somatic embryos originated as early as day 4 of culture. The proembryo stage resembled that of a zygotic embryo and the somatic embryos developed through the globular, heart-torpedo, and cotyledonous stages characteristic of in vivo zygotic embryogenesis. A suspensor-like structure was observed with some somatic embryos but this was not consistent. Strong evidence is presented to suggest that somatic embryos arose from single subepidermal parenchyma cells.

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