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Allan M. Armitage

A teaching methodology was employed to use gardeners in the community to help in the teaching of a Herbaceous Perennial Plant Identification class (8 weeks, about 160 taxa). Most universities do not have a diverse collection of herbaceous perennials planted on campus, nor do most campuses have horticultural or botanical gardens for students. Teaching plant materials with photos alone or trying to force materials in the greenhouse is not only a horticultural challenge but seldom provides students with the important identification characteristics (habit, fragrance, fruit) of the taxon. Approximately six gardeners in the community agreed to open their private gardens to the students. Plants are evaluated 2 days before class time, and a list of plants is published on WebCT each week All gardens chosen must be within 15 minutes driving time from campus. Students were able to drive to the gardens, meet the gardeners and were exposed to the plants in garden setting. Potential problems of being unable to drive to gardens, or not being able to return to the gardens to study were not realized. Gardeners embraced the program and students were enriched by studying plants in a natural garden environment. The final examination is conducted in one of the gardens visited by the class. The use of gardeners in the community has been an important part of the class for 10 years.

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Yan Ma and Junyu Chen

From 1986 through 1993 wild rose species were investigated throughout China to catalog and to characterize the rose germplasm resources in mainland China. Many of the 94 rose species and 144 rose varieties in China have not been extensively utilized. The basic features of Chinese rose species are as follows. (1) There are many valuable and rare Rosa species in China. These species are sources of many unique and outstanding characters such as intense fragrance, white and yellow flower color, recurrent flowering and resistance to stress. More than 80% of the rose species in China are native to only China. (2) Although most Rosa species are still in the wild state, a few species cultivated from very early time have many forms available. (3) The number of rose species gradually increases from Northeast to Southwest China. The distribution centers of Rosa species in China are Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces. Chinese rose species can be introduced and used directly in gardens, or in breeding programs to develop new roses.

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Joshua D. Butcher, Charles P. Laubscher and Johannes C. Coetzee

Pelargonium tomentosum Jacq.; the peppermint-scented pelargonium, is an herbaceous groundcover indigenous to the Western Cape of South Africa. Volatile oils are produced by this plant, which are used in the fragrance industry. Studies on other Pelargonium species have shown chlorophyll content may affect the yield of essential oils. This study was carried out to investigate the viability of growing P. tomentosum in deep water culture (DWC) hydroponics and how best to aerate/oxygenate the nutrient solution to increase the chlorophyll content within leaves. The experiment was conducted over a period of 74 days, 16 different methods of oxygenation were applied to 9 replicates. The control had passive aeration; the treatments were made up of air-pumps, vortex oxygenators, and the application of hydrogen peroxide at various frequency intervals; these were combined with each other and run as separate oxygenation methods. The measurement of the chlorophyll content of plant leaves has been established to be an accurate way of establishing vigor, health, and levels of stress. It was found that the combination of high-frequency application (every third day) of hydrogen peroxide, vortex oxygenation, and air-pump injection (both operational for 24 hours/day) which formed treatment 11 (APVHa), yielded the highest production of chlorophyll within all the replicates differing significantly (P ≤ 0.001) from the control and other treatments.

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Yuji Noguchi, Tatsuya Mochizuki and Kazuyoshi Sone

The use of wild species as breeding materials was tried for expanding hereditary variation in strawberry. Some interspecific hybrids setting large fruits with peculiar aroma have been bred by pollination of F. vesca to F. xananassa. Although Asian wild diploid strawberries such as F. nilgerrensis or F. iinumae have not been exploited as a breeding material until the present, the crossing test between cultivated strawberries (8x) and the Asian wild strawberries (2x) were attempted. The interspecific hybrids originated from pollination of F. nilgerrensis or F. iinumae to F. xananassa cv. `Toyonoka' were all sterile pentaploids. By in vitro colchicine treatment of these sterile hybrids for chromosome doubling, many fruiting interspecific hybrids were produced. In particular, some superior hybrids were obtained from `Toyonoka' × F. nilgerrensis. From the results of RAPD analysis, the interspecific hybrids had the fragments specific for both parents. While their morphological characters were close to `Toyonoka', they had some characters from F. nilgerrensis, such as numerous hair on their petioles and peduncles. Their fruits have good characters that are same level of cultivated strawberry about size, Brix, acidity, and vitamin C content. The flesh is soft and skin color is pale pink. The aroma components are resemble F. nilgerrensis, and enrich ethyl acetate. The fragrance of interspecific hybrid like peach is characteristic.

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Jeffrey Adelberg and Matthew Cousins

Geophytes store carbohydrates in modified underground shoot systems protected by a broad array of biologically active chemistry. In vitro formation of storage organs requires months in the lab instead of years in the field, when water and nutrients are correctly supplied. Liquid and agar systems in large and small vessels were compared for sugar and water use with turmeric (Curcuma longa) as a model plant. Small jars on a shaker were compared with large, flat-bottomed vessels containing thin films of liquid media, intermittently tilted at slight inclines that allow the advantages of liquid phase transfer with gentle agitation. Liquid culture in small vessels on a shaker yielded the most plants and liquid culture on a thin-film rocker in a large vessel yielded the largest plants. Increased and improved biomass (fresh and dry) in liquid culture compared to agar was based on greater sugar use. When large vessels of liquid media were grown for 5 and 6 months on a rocker, 400 mL of media yielded 150 to 200 g (fresh weight) of plants. Similarly, 13 to 16 g (dry weight) of plant tissue was derived from 24 g of sugar. Plants were about one-third rhizome by fresh mass. Rhizomes had greater dry and fresh weight than leaves or roots, indicating solute actively accumulated in the rhizome. The rhizomes had normal morphology, characteristic pigments and fragrance, and rhizome extracts had strong antioxidant potential. The gentle rocking action of plantlets in sugar-containing liquid medium was demonstrated to produce functional storage organs.

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A.N. Pollard, P.C. Coggins, C.E. Coker and P.R. Knight

There are over 30,000 named daylily cultivars in existence today. Ancient Chinese used the plant for nutritive and medicinal qualities. The Greek name Hemerocallis means beautiful for a day. Daylilies demonstrate potential in food service due to the range of color, fragrance, flavor, and textural varieties. The objective was to quantify by descriptive analysis the attribute descriptors for two edible daylily cultivars, i.e., `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink' and to provide data indicating optimum month for consumption of these two cultivars of daylilies. Blooms were harvested during early morning hours over 5 months (May to September). Six panelists were trained utilizing Quantitative Descriptive Analysis for 6 months on the sensory attributes of `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink' cultivars. Training consisted of determining attribute categories as well as intensity ratings for references. Attribute categories included appearance, odor/scent, handfelt texture, oral texture, basic taste(s), flavor, mouth feeling factors, and chew rate. Results showed attribute categories with descriptors for `Siloam Powder Pink' as odor/scent, flavor, mouth feeling factors, and oral texture as having a significant difference (P < 0.05) for the evaluation months. `Rosie Meyer' demonstrated significant differences (P < 0.05) for the evaluation months in attribute categories for appearance, odor/scent, flavor, oral texture, and mouth feeling factors. The optimum month for consumption of `Rosie Meyer' was September (P < 0.05); `Siloam Powder Pink' was July (P < 0.05). These results provide a descriptive language for daylily (Hemerocallis sp.) cultivars `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink'. The optimum month for consumption to obtain the fullest range of desirable attributes will provide the food and horticultural industry with added information by which to market these cultivars.

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A.N. Pollard, P. Coggins, P.R. Knight and C.E. Coker

There are >52,000 cultivars of daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.), some of which the ancient Chinese used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Daylilies have tremendous potential in foodservice due to the range of color, fragrance, flavor, and textural varieties. The objective was to quantify by descriptive analysis the attribute descriptors for two edible daylily cultivars; that is, `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink,' and to provide data indicating the optimum month for consumption of these two cultivars of daylilies. Blooms were harvested during early morning hours over 5 months (May through September). Six panelists were trained to use Quantitative Descriptive Analysis for 6 months on the sensory attributes of `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink' cultivars. Training consisted of determining attribute categories as well as intensity ratings for references. Attribute categories included appearance, odor/scent, handfelt texture, oral texture, basic taste(s), flavor, mouthfeel factors, and chew rate. Results showed attribute categories with descriptors for `Siloam Powder Pink' as odor/scent, flavor, mouthfeel factors, and oral texture as having a significant difference (P < 0.05) for the evaluation months. `Rosie Meyer' demonstrated significant differences (P < 0.05) for the evaluation months in attribute categories for appearance, odor/scent, flavor, oral texture, and mouthfeel factors. The optimum month for consumption of `Rosie Meyer] was September (P < 0.05); for `Siloam Powder Pink,' it was July (P < 0.05). These results provide a descriptive language for daylily cultivars `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink.' The optimum month for consumption to obtain the fullest range of desirable attributes will provide the food and horticultural industries with added information by which to market these cultivars.

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Xiaojie Zhao, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, Jac J. Varco, Tongyin Li and Eugene K. Blythe

Tall bearded (TB) iris (Iris germanica L.) has great potential as a specialty cut flower due to its fragrance and showy, multicolor display; however, limited research has been reported on optimal nitrogen (N) nutrient management for TB iris. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of N fertilizer rate on plant growth and flowering of ‘Immortality’ iris and determine the influence of both stored N and spring-applied N fertilizer on spring growth and flowering. On 14 Mar. 2012, rhizomes of ‘Immortality’ iris were potted in a commercial substrate with no starter fertilizer. Plants were fertigated with 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mm N from NH4NO3 twice per week from 28 Mar. to 28 Sept. 2012. In 2013, half of the plants from each of the 2012 N rate were supplied with either 0 or 10 mm N from 15NH4 15NO3 twice per week from 25 Mar. to 7 May 2013. Growth and flowering data including plant height, leaf SPAD, number of fans and inflorescence stems, and length of inflorescence stem were collected during the growing season. Plants were harvested in Dec. 2012 and May 2013 to measure dry weight and N concentration in leaves, roots, and rhizomes. Results showed higher 2012 N rates increased plant height, leaf SPAD reading, and number of inflorescence stems at first and second blooming in 2012. Greater 2012 N rates also increased plant dry weight and N content in all structures, and N concentration in roots and rhizomes. Rhizomes (58.8% to 66.3% of total N) were the dominant sink for N in Dec. 2012. Higher 2012 N rates increased plant height, number of fans, and the number of inflorescence stems at spring bloom in 2013. In May 2013, N in leaf tissue constituted the majority (51% to 64.3%) of the total plant N. Higher 2012 N rates increased total dry weight, N concentration, and N content in all 2013 15N rates; however, leaf dry weight in all plants was improved by 2013 15N rate. Percentage of tissue N derived from 2013 15N (NDFF) decreased with increasing 2012 N rate. New spring leaves were the dominant sink (56.8% to 72.2%) for 2013 applied 15N. In summary, ‘Immortality’ iris is capable of a second blooming in a growing season, this second blooming dependent on N fertilization rate in current year. A relatively high N rate is recommended to produce a second bloom.

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Ying Kong, Ming Sun, Hui-tang Pan and Qi-xiang Zhang

Floral fragrance is a desirable character for ornamental plants and cut flowers ( Chandler and Brugliera, 2011 ). For instance, consumers of sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus ) consider flower aroma to be more attractive than flower shape or color

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Ming-Chung Liu and Der-Ming Yeh

majority of amaryllis species/cultivars do not have fragrant flowers ( Meerow, 2000 ). Although no genetic analysis has been preformed, Meerow (2009) have drawn two hypotheses: (1) Floral fragrance is a recessive trait and (2) expression of fragrance is