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Container production has increased rapidly in many parts of the U.S. over the past 15 years. Container production has been the fastest growing sector in the nursery industry and the growth is expected to continue. Weed growth in container-grown nursery stock is a particularly serious problem, because the nutrients, air, and water available are limited to the volume of the container. The extent of damage caused by weeds is often underestimated and effective control is essential. Various researchers have found that as little as one weed in a small (1 gal) pot affects the growth of a crop. However, even if weeds did not reduce growth, a container plant with weeds is a less marketable product than a weed-free product. Managing weeds in a container nursery involves eliminating weeds and preventing their spread in the nursery, and this usually requires chemical controls. However, chemical controls should never be the only management tools implemented. Maximizing cultural and mechanical controls through proper sanitation and hand weeding are two important means to prevent the spread and regeneration of troublesome weeds. Cultural controls include mulching, irrigation methods (subirrigation), and mix type. Nursery growers estimate that they spend $500 to $4000/acre of containers for manual removal of weeds, depending on weed species being removed. Economic losses due to weed infestations have been estimated at approximately $7000/acre. Reduction of this expense with improved weed control methodologies and understanding weed control would have a significant impact on the industry. Problems associated with herbicide use in container production include proper calibration, herbicide runoff concerns from plastic or gravel (especially when chemicals fall between containers) and the need for multiple applications. As with other crops, off-site movement of pesticides through herbicide leaching, runoff, spray drift, and non-uniformity of application are concerns facing nursery growers. This article reviews some current weed control methods, problems associated with these methods, and possible strategies that could be useful for container nursery growers.

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pathogens; chemical ecology; insecticide resistance; coping with stress; population dynamics; feeding injury; transmission of plant viruses; chemical control; cultural control; host–plant resistance; biological control; monitoring and forecasting; integrated

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that there is information pertaining to detection, identification, monitoring, chemical control, biological control, cultural control, host-plant resistance, and integrated pest management (IPM). The authors provide in-depth descriptions of a variety of

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chapter, Insects, Mites, and Other Invertebrates, covers common name, genus and species, damage, description, and seasonal development of each pest, followed by BMP and biological control and cultural control. Some of my favorite photographs are the close

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Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Plant Dis. 64 854 856 10.1094/PD-64-854 Ningen, S.S. 2003 Chemical and cultural controls of anthracnose on Euonymus fortunei Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK MS thesis

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management strategy that includes scouting, cultural control, sanitation, physical control, and biological control ( Bielza, 2008 ; Cloyd, 2009b ; Hoy, 1998 ). Certain fungicides have been demonstrated to increase the efficacy of pyrethroid

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Tumwine, J. 1999 Towards the development of integrated cultural control of tomato late blight ( Phytophthora infestans ) in Uganda. Wageningen Agricultural Univ., Wageningen, Netherlands, PhD Diss Tumwine, J. Frinking, H.D. Jeger, M.J. 2002a Integrating

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very expensive, method to control nutsedge ( Bangarwa et al., 2010 ). Morales-Payan et al. (1997) and Peerzada (2017) report that mechanical and cultural control of nutsedge through cultivation and other means usually is not economical or realistic

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Bradley, K.W. 2000 Characterization of the mechanism of resistance of a johnsongrass ( Sorghum halepense ) biotype to selected graminicides in Virginia and response of mugwort ( Artemisia vulgaris ) to specific herbicidal and cultural control strategies

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by tropical storms and phytopthora (root rot due to flooding). Consequently, the amount spent on pest and disease management and cultural controls as an overall percentage of operating costs has been relatively small compared with other fruit crops

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