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Genyi Li and Carlos F. Quiros

DNA samples from 21 cultivars of celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce) were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. The most informative adapter combination was EcoRI-TaqI. All cultivars could be distinguished from each other by their unique fingerprints based on 73 markers. The program NTSYS grouped the cultivars in three main clusters according to their origin. The groupings observed agreed, with a few exceptions, with those expected by historical accounts and previous analyses based on biochemical and ramdomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers.

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Zhi-li Suo, Wen-ying Li, Juan Yao, Hui-jin Zhang, Zhi-ming Zhang and Di-xuan Zhao

Tree peony cultivars are usually classified according to flower characteristics (flower form and flower color) which are commonly affected by environmental influences and developmental levels. Judgment of flower forms may also depend on the observer. Precise and rapid cultivar identification methods are also required to manage cultivar collections as well as tree peony breeding programs. The objective of this paper is to analyze the discriminatory ability of leaf morphology and Intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker systems for tree peony cultivars. As a result, although there exist large variations of leaf morphology of tree peony cultivars, the morphological characteristics of biternately compound leaves 3, 4, and 5 from the base of a shoot at the middle part of a plant are relatively stable with smaller variations within cultivars (2.7% to 27.1%, 16.8% on average) and with larger differentiations among cultivars (72.9% to 97.3%, 83.2% on average). Statistical and principal components analyses indicate that 12 leaf morphological characteristics are valuable for cultivar classification. ISSR markers present a precisely discriminatory power in tree peony cultivar classification without environmental influences. The cultivars with multiple flower forms, which makes it difficult to make judgment by means of a flower-form-based classification system, have been significantly characterized using leaf morphology or ISSR markers.

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Yiqi Zhen, Zuozhou Li, Hongwen Huang and Ying Wang

Forty-eight kiwifruit cultivars and selections, representing more than 90% of total world kiwifruit production, were investigated using nine SSR markers to establish genetic identities, and evaluate genetic diversity and relatedness. These nine SSRs were polymorphic and a total of 213 alleles were detected, resulting in a mean number of 23.7 alleles per locus, ranging from nine to 38 alleles. One hundred and thirty-three alleles were found to be common to both A. chinensis and A. deliciosa, while 33 and 36 were specific to A. chinensis and A. deliciosa, respectively. In addition, 34 alleles were specific to one single genotype and provided a set of valuable alleles for cultivar identification. A single SSR locus UDK 96-414 could differentiate all 48 genotypes except two presumable clones. Mean number of alleles per locus (A), percentage of polymorphic loci (P), and direct count heterozygosity (Ho) assessed for each genotype over all loci revealed considerable differences among these 48 genotypes. On average, A = 2.6, P = 89.4% and Ho = 0.546 were found in A. chinensis cultivars, while A = 3.5, P = 97.0% and Ho = 0.671 in A. deliciosa cultivars. Consensus fingerprint profiling using SSR markers is a useful and reliable method for establishing genetic identities of kiwifruit cultivars and selections. It also improves evaluation effectiveness of genetic diversity and relatedness compared to RAPD markers.

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Riaz Ahmad, Miki Okada, Jeffrey L. Firestone, Chris R. Mallek and Marie Jasieniuk

We isolated and characterized microsatellite loci in the ornamental pampas grass Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn. for purposes of identifying cultivars and assessing genetic relationships among cultivars. Small insert genomic libraries were enriched for dinucleotide (CT)n and (CA)n repeats. Ninety clones were sequenced of which 76% contained at least one microsatellite with a basic motif greater than six repeat units. Nine primer pairs amplified 10 polymorphic and putatively disomic loci, and were used to genotype 88 individuals representing 17 named cultivars and four selections. In total, 93 alleles were detected with a maximum of two to 19 per locus. Effective number of alleles varied from 1.3 to 9.5. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.07 to 0.81. The 10 microsatellite loci distinguished the majority of pampas grass cultivars. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis, based on proportion of shared alleles among individuals, revealed groups of cultivars corresponding to origin and morphological characteristics. With few exceptions, individuals of a single cultivar clustered together with moderate to strong bootstrap support (greater than 50%). Interestingly, `Pumila' from Europe and the United States formed separate clusters indicating independent origins. A large, diverse cluster with low bootstrap support consisted of selections and cultivars sold as seed, rather than potted or bare-root clonal plants. Primers designed for C. selloana amplified microsatellite loci in other Cortaderia Stapf species concordant with phylogenetic relationships among the species. Cross-amplification was 100% in C. jubata (Lemoine ex Carrière) Stapf; 77% in C. pilosa (d'Urv.) Hack. and C. rudiuscula Stapf; 66% in C. fulvida (Buch.) Zotov; and 55% in C. richardii (Endl.) Zotov and C. toetoe Zotov.

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Luisa Monte-Corvo, Luis Goulão and Cristina Oliveira

Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used for cultivar identification and for determination of the phenetic relationships among 24 pear cultivars (Pyrus communis L.). The ability of several molecular marker systems including randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), simple sequence repeats (SSR), and selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) to detect variation among clones of the most significant Portuguese cultivar, Rocha, was also investigated. Each of the eight ISSR primers tested was able to distinguish the 24 pear cultivars. The ISSR primers generated 337 markers, 79.5% of which were polymorphic. The cultivar dendrogram obtained with the ISSR marker data was very similar to that obtained with previous RAPD+AFLP analysis, confirming the genetic divergence of `Pérola', `Carvalhal' and `Lawson' from the other cultivars. Eight out of 15 apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] SSR primers tested also amplified microsatellites in pear. None of the five molecular marker systems analyzed (with a total of 1082 markers) detected reproducible polymorphisms among the nine `Rocha' clones, in spite of the presence of clear phenotypic differences.

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Eiichi Inoue, Lin Ning, Hiromichi Hara, Shuan Ruan and Hiroyuki Anzai

., 2003 ) and used not only for genetic differentiation, which is used in phylogenetic research and cultivar identification, but also for advanced genetic mapping, including comparative mapping ( Barreneche et al., 2003 ) and quantitative trait locus (QTL

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Li Li, Xiulan Xu, Ping Wu, Guo Zhang and Xiaobing Zhang

-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a good choice for marker-based studies of genetic diversity and cultivar identification ( Deleu et al., 2009 ; Pavan et al., 2017 ). However, it is difficult to apply SNPs in most melon breeding programs because of the high cost and

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Jennifer A. Kimball, M. Carolina Zuleta, Matthew C. Martin, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Ambika Chandra and Susana R. Milla-Lewis

.C. Burson, B. 2009 Interploid st. augustinegrass [ Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] hybrids recovered by embryo rescue In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. 45 659 666 Geuna, F. Toschi, M. Bassi, D. 2003 The use of AFLP markers for cultivar identification in

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Ashok K. Ghosh, Lewis N. Lukens, David M. Hunter and Judith N. Strommer

The genus Pyrus (pear) includes species and cultivars of great diversity. We have tested the feasibility of a polyacrylamide gel eletrophoresis (PAGE)-based +/– simple sequence repeat (SSR) screen as a means of defining relationships amongst pears of commercial importance in North America. The screen included 28 pear accessions, including economically important cultivars, numbered selections from breeding programs and interspecific hybrids. It relied on 18 SSR primer pairs, each of which produced polymorphic banding patterns in all the genotypes examined. Fragments were scored for presence or absence within genotypes. The results show that amplification and analysis of a small number of SSR loci enable identification of cultivars and reasonable definition of genetic relationships in North American pears. Seven primer pairs were sufficient to distinguish the 28 pear cultivars. Analyses using both distance and parsimony criteria grouped cultivars in a manner consistent with known pedigrees and sites of origin.

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A.M. Torres, T. Millán and J.I. Cubero

Five rose (Rosa spp.) cultivars were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Using eight primers, all cultivars were distinguished by comparing differences in DNA banding patterns. The RAPD technique fingerprints rose cultivars rapidly and inexpensively for identification and patent protection purposes.