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Renee Conneway, Sven Verlinden, Andrew K. Koeser, Michael Evans, Rebecca Schnelle, Victoria Anderson and J. Ryan Stewart

used in short-term greenhouse production, both premature failure and limited compostability of new containers may also limit alternative containers compatibility with medium- to long-term or multiseason ornamental nursery crop production systems ( Li et

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James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell, Kenneth G. McCabe and William R. Graves

many of these existing alternatives, most of which are made of natural fibers, perform poorly or have a poor water-use efficiency during crop production compared with plastic containers or do not degrade as well as suggested ( Evans and Hensley, 2004

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Shuresh Ghimire, Annette L. Wszelaki, Jenny C. Moore, Debra Ann Inglis and Carol Miles

. < https://www.greenbiz.com/article/how-can-agriculture-solve-its-1-billion-plastic-problem >. Haapala, T. Palonen, P. Korpela, A. Ahokas, J. 2014 Feasibility of paper mulches in crop production—A review Agr. Food Sci. 23 60 79 Haapala, T. Palonen, P

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Erin Agro and Youbin Zheng

, M.J. Agro, E. Vinson, K. 2013 Fertilizer can be used as a management tool in container nursery production. 6 Feb. 2014. < http://tinyurl.com/o6r4tg2 > Zheng, Y. Vinson, K. Dixon, M. 2011 Acidify irrigation water for potted nursery crop production

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Tim D. Davis, Eric M. Bost and Carmen N. Byce

capacity related to horticulture. OVERVIEW OF HORTICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION IN MYANMAR Myanmar produces a wide variety of fruit and vegetable crops, including many tropical species ( Fig. 2 ). Mangoes and cashews are the leading fruit crops in terms of

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Susmitha Nambuthiri, Amy Fulcher, Andrew K. Koeser, Robert Geneve and Genhua Niu

containers are classified as plantable, compostable, or recycled plastic, based on their requirements for and ability to degrade at the end of their crop production life and parent materials ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Examples of plantable, compostable, and

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Charles A. Sanchez

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Joseph P. Albano, James Altland, Donald J. Merhaut, Sandra B. Wilson and P. Chris Wilson

under near-normal commercial nursery-crop production conditions. Fig. 1. Thyrallis plants collected at the same nursery that was the focus of the study. ( A ) Leaves showing nutrient disorder and ( B ) affected plant with general chlorosis and poor

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H. Chris Wien

High tunnels are well suited for use in the production of floral crops, especially cut flowers. Through the increases in temperature afforded at both ends of the growing season, high tunnels allow earlier and later harvests than are possible in the field. During summer, rain protection and a relatively calm environment provides an ideal growing environment to cut flower crops. In U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Hardiness Zones 3 through 5, the higher temperatures of a high tunnel permit culture of warm-season crops like celosia (Celosia argentea) during summer. Cut flower production allows intensive production on a small land area and provides a high level of income. For these reasons, high tunnels have become a standard part of cut flower growers' farms. Most commonly, they are single-bay structures with roll-up sides, but use of multi-bay complexes is becoming more popular for larger-scale growers. In USDA Hardiness Zones of 7 and higher, high tunnels are shaded in summer to lower interior temperatures and enhance production of shade-tolerant species. Overall, techniques of moderating temperature extremes with shading and ventilation, or use of low tunnels inside to increase minimum temperatures are important options for cut flower production. In the presentation, comparisons will be made in growth and earliness of production and yield for several cut flower species grown in the field and an adjacent high tunnel.

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Gary T. Roberson

Precision agriculture is a comprehensive system that relies on information, technology and management to optimize agricultural production. While used since the mid-1980s in agronomic crops, it is attracting increasing interest in horticultural crops. Relatively high per acre crop values for some horticultural crops and crop response to variability in soil and nutrients makes precision agriculture an attractive production system. Precision agriculture efforts in the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at North Carolina State University are currently focused in two functional areas: site-specific management and postharvest process management. Much of the information base, technology, and management practices developed in agronomic crops have practical and potentially profitable applications in fruit and vegetable production. Mechanized soil sampling, pest scouting and variable rate control systems are readily adapted to horticultural crops. Yield monitors are under development for many crops that can be mechanically harvested. Investigations have begun to develop yield monitoring capability for hand harvested crops. Postharvest controls are widely used in horticultural crops to enhance or protect product quality.