This study was undertaken to determine whether plastochron index (PI), a mathematical construct that quantifies shoot development, can be applied to indeterminate bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Length measurements of the middle trifoliate leaflet were the basis of the PI calculation. The expansion of each middle trifoliate leaflet at every node on each plant tested was measured over time to determine whether the growth pattern of each leaflet fits the assumptions of the PI construct. Plants from five indeterminate bean genotypes were grown in two controlled environments: A constant 29C with 12-hr of daylength, and a constant 23C with 12-hr daylength extended to 14 hr with low light intensity. Early leaflet expansion was exponential for all five genotypes in both environments. Expansion rates of successive leaflets were also similar, although a few leaflets in three of the 10 genotype-environment combinations differed in their rates of expansion. Exponential and equal rates of expansion validate the calculation of the fractional component of the PI. In both environments, all genotypes exhibited an increasing rate of leaf initiation with time, which precludes the use of a simple linear slope in estimating rate of development.
K.S. Yourstone and D.H. Wallace
Craig S. Charron and Carl E. Sams
Crops of the Brassicaceae contain glucosinolates(GSs), which when hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase, generate products involved in cancer chemoprotection, plant defense, and plant-insect interactions. A rapid-cycling base population of B. oleracea L. was grown in a hydroponic system in a controlled environment to determine the roles of temperature, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and photoperiod in GS concentration and myrosinase activity. The concentration of total GSs in leaves was 44% and 114% higher at 12 and 32 °C respectively than at 22 °C under constant light of 300 μmol·m-2·s-1. The concentration of glucoraphanin, the precursor to sulforaphane, a compound with chemoprotective properties, was 5-fold higher at 32 than at 22 °C. Total GSs were ≈50% lower in roots at 12 °C and 32 than at 22 °C. Total GSs in leaves decreased 20% when PPF was increased from 200 to 400 μmol·m-2·s-1. Myrosinase activity on a fresh weight basis (activity-FW) was ≈30% higher in leaves and stems at 12 and 32 °C than at 22 °C, and ≈30% higher in leaves grown at 200 and 400 μmol·m-2·s-1 than at 300 μmol·m-2·s-1. Consideration of climatic factors that influence the glucosinolate-myrosinase system may be necessary to optimize the planting and cultivation of Brassica crops for maximum health benefits.
Johshin Tsuruyama and Toshio Shibuya
Plug transplants of strawberry have been replacing traditional bare-root transplants despite their higher costs because the newer approach can reduce the incidence of soilborne disease and improve transplant quality under a controlled environment
Daniel J. Barta and Theodore W. Tibbitts
An electron microprobe was used to determine tissue concentrations of Ca across 20-mm-long leaves of `Green Lakes' crisphead lettuce (Luctuca sativa L.) with and without tipburn injury. Concentrations within the fifth and 14th leaves, counted from the cotyledons, from plants grown under controlled-environment conditions were compared to concentrations within similar leaves obtained from plants grown under field conditions. Only the 14th leaf from plants grown under controlled-environment conditions developed tipburn. Injured areas on these leaves had Ca concentrations as low as 0.2 to 0.3 mg·g-1 dry weight. Uninjured areas of tipburned leaves contained from 0.4 to 0.5 mg·g-1 dry weight. Concentrations across the uninjured 14th leaf from field-grown plants averaged 1.0 mg·g-1 dry weight. Amounts across the uninjured fifth leaves from both environments averaged 1.6 mg·g-1 dry weight. In contrast, Mg concentrations were higher in injured leaves than in uninjured leaves and thus were negatively correlated with Ca concentrations. Magnesium concentrations averaged 4.7 mg·g-1 dry weight in injured leaves compared with 3.4 mg·g-1 dry weight in uninjured leaves from both environments. Magnesium concentrations were uniform across the leaf. Potassium concentrations were highest at the leaf apex and decreased toward the base and also decreased from the midrib to the margin. Potassium averaged 51 mg·g-1 dry weight in injured and uninjured leaves from both environments. No significant differences in K concentration were present between injured and uninjured leaves. This study documented that deficient concentrations of Ca were present in areas of leaf tissue developing tipburn symptoms and that concentrations were significantly higher in similar areas of other leaves that had no symptoms. This study also documented that Ca concentrations were significantly lower in enclosed leaves that exhibited tipburn symptoms than in exposed leaves that did not exhibit tipburn. Also, the amounts of Ca in plants that developed tipburn in controlled environments were lower than in plants of the same cultivar that did not develop tipburn in field plantings. The reduced levels of Ca in plants grown in controlled environments were associated with faster development rates compared with field-grown plants.
Ryo Matsuda, Chieri Kubota, M. Lucrecia Alvarez and Guy A. Cardineau
field, greenhouse, and home garden 2nd Ed CRC Press Boca Raton, FL Kubota, C. Thomson, C.A. Wu, M. Javanmardi, J. 2006 Controlled environments for production of value-added food crops with high phytochemical concentrations: Lycopene in tomato as an
I.J. Warrington and R.A. Norton
Abbreviations: CE, controlled environment; PPF, photosynthetic photon flux. 1 Present address: Horticulturist, Washington State Univ. Research and Extension Unit, Mount Vernon, WA 98273. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Jill Stanley, the